مرکزی صفحہ Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal Rissanen, T., & McQuillan, H. (2016). Zero Waste Fashion Design. London; New York: Fairchild Books,...
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Book Review Rissanen, T., & McQuillan, H. (2016). Zero Waste Fashion Design. London; New York: Fairchild Books, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing, Plc, . ISBN 978-1-4725-8198-3. 223 pp. This book provides comprehensive resources for the implementation of a zero waste approach in fashion design. This book was written by two authors. The ﬁrst author, Dr. Timo Rissanen, is an assistant professor of Fashion Design and Sustainability at Parsons School of Design. His dissertation in 2004 experimented with zero waste fashion designs (ZWFD). The second author, Holly McQuillan, is a senior lecturer in Design at the College of Creative Arts at Massey University, New Zealand. ZWFD was integrated into her master’s thesis in 2005. Ms. McQuillan is a doctoral candidate. Zero waste design concepts have received increasing attention in many industries due to their emphasis on sustainability. However, it was a relatively novel concept in the fashion industry. This book explores the diverse ZWFD perspectives from historical and traditional dress through innovative contemporary fashion with a focus on technology. While sustainability practices also encourage the utilization of postconsumer fabric, the term “waste” as used in this book refers to preconsumer fabric waste generated from pattern cutting. Design examples throughout the book, from the authors and from other zero waste designers, help readers to understand the concepts. Chapter 1 titled “Zero Waste Fashion Design from History to Now” reports on various zero waste design cases across cultures and eras. The authors admit that zero waste design is not a new concept as it was quite popular when fabrics were regarded as precious. However, with the abundant resources available in modern society, approximately 15% of the fabric used during manufacturing is wasted, which means that 15% of the economic investment in materials, energy, water, and time are lost. The term “ZWFD” is deﬁned in this chapter as “fashion design practice that has pattern cutting be an int; egral part of the design process, and that will result in garments and no fabric waste.” Chapter 2 is titled “Pattern Cutting as a Fashion Design Tool.” The relationship between creative fashion cutting (e.g., subtraction cutting, transformation reconstruction) and ZWFD is explained because pattern cutting is an essential process to achieve ZWFD. It is recommended that fashion designers, including design students, should regard the pattern cutting process as an openended process of discovery and thinking rather than a closed activity. Unlike conventional practice, a nonhierarchical organization between designers and pattern cutters is preferred in ZWFD. Chapter 3 is titled “Zero Waste Fashion Design: The Basics.” I believe readers will ﬁnd the most meaningful information in this chapter. Here, the authors describe their innovations, show several types of zero waste garment blocks, and address the criteria for ZWFD. The ﬁrst block emphasizes the relationship between the neckline and the armhole/sleeve crown, which can be used as a Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, Vol. 46, No. 3, March 2018 314–316 DOI: 10.1111/fcsr.12255 © 2018 American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences 314 BOOK REVIEW 315 ground to build a garment. Possible variations are explained. The zero waste sleeve block (square or triangle as sleeves) and spiral trouser pant (using triangle shapes to make trousers) are also introduced. Readers will also ﬁnd alternative solutions in adopting zero waste into current manufacturing, as the authors encourage readers to attempt to make zero waste versions of existing designs. Chapter 4 is titled “Zero Waste Fashion Design and CAD.” The utilization of computer-aided design (CAD) in ZWFD is similar to its use in conventional fashion design. CAD can be used in testing samples in the developmental stage. The authors illustrate this utilizing paper as a small-scale example of utilizing CAD in ZWFD. The authors also state that simple ZWFD garments can take advantage of digital textile printing because printing allows a single zero waste pattern to provide for the appearance of different fabrics and colors. This chapter also describes how patterns and surface designs can be printed together on fabric and explains the ZWFD tutorials through CAD. Digital technologies can serve as solutions for some of the challenges in ZWFD. For example, using laser cutting and digital embroidery can be helpful when traditional ﬁnishing of hems is hard to accomplish. Chapter 5 is titled “Manufacturing Zero Waste Garments.” This chapter addresses the challenges associated with manufacturing ZWFD, which requires producing various sizes and necessitates the use of a grading process. The authors suggest several pathways: (1) one-size-ﬁts-most, (2) conventional grading with some modiﬁcations, (3) designing each size, (4) using a different fabric width for each size, and (5) a hybrid method that combines the other four pathways. The authors suggest that the fashion industry should rethink and reorganize current manufacturing procedures to achieve sustainability. Chapter 6 titled “Zero Waste Fashion Design: Getting Started” discusses the fact that the ZWFD concept is still ongoing and suggests that readers can create the next part of the story. The authors’ current attempts to contribute to the future of ZWFD are explained, and they embrace broader concepts in sustainability practices in the fashion industry. The MakeUse project by Ms. McQuillan emphasizes both ZWFD and the fashion user experience. As a result, this project is connected to slow fashion. This project utilizes digital printing and digital embroidery; the digital prints contain guides called a visual mapping system for the user and maker. The digital prints also function as visual esthetic of the garment. As such, consumers will become makers as well. The project proposes ongoing and evolving use, and that means that the potential use life is extended. For example, endurance shirts by Dr. Rissanen emphasize mending activities in addition to zero waste practice. He says personal taste and lifestyle needs can be reﬂected to mending activities. Furthermore, documenting, reﬂecting, and collaborating have been emphasized as a crucial component of progress. The authors admit that their zero waste design practices have been promoted through academia. They include interviews with current fashion industry designers including Yeohlee Teng, Maja Stabel, and Kia Koski, who are practicing ZWFC across the industry. In addition, the downloadable patterns from the book as student resources are available at www.bloomsbury.com/ rissanen-mcquillan-zero-waste. Dr. Rissanen and Ms. McQuillan challenge how the current fashion industry exists and functions, and they encourage more companies, designers, educators, 316 BOOK REVIEW and students to experiment with ZWFD. Their book suggests that we need to develop new ways of thinking and innovations toward sustainability practices. ZWFD is one way of challenging the current system. I believe that fashion designers, fashion design instructors, and students will beneﬁt from this book to gain insight into sustainability development in the fashion industry. Hae Jin Gam PhD Illinois State University e-mail: email@example.com