مرکزی صفحہ Scientific American Weather Vane with Attachment for Indoor Readings

Weather Vane with Attachment for Indoor Readings

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جلد:
98
زبان:
english
رسالہ:
Scientific American
DOI:
10.1038/scientificamerican04181908-272a
Date:
April, 1908
فائل:
PDF, 372 KB
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Scientific America.n

APRIL 18, 1908.

tion entertained in some quarters to operating four
valves by only two valve gears. The four cylinders,
15 inches diameter and 26 inches stroke, are supplied

THE LATEST DEVELOPMENT lN BRITISH RAILWAY
LOCOMOTIVE DESIGN.
BY F. C. COLEMAN.'

For the operation of their several long-distance non­
stop services, which include daily runs between Lon­
don and Plymouth, 225%. miles in 4 hours 7 minutes;
London and Exeter (four runs daily) 173%. miles in
3 hours; and London and

by steam superheated on the Swindon system. The
coupled wheelbase is 14 feet, and the total engine
wheelbase 34 feet 6 inches. The boiler is of somewhat
unusual size for British practice, the barrel having a

the 162 fire tubes, all of which are 22 feet 7 inches in
length, 141 have a diameter of 27'2 inches, and the
remaining 21 a diameter of 4%. inches. In addition
there are four arched tubes, each 7 feet 87'2 inches in
length and 3� inches in diameter. . The area of the
fire grate is 41.79 square feet The working pressure
of the boiler is 225 pounds, and the tractive effort
29,4 30 pounds. In working
order the engine (exclusive of
tender) weighs 97 tons 5 hun­

Bristol, 1187'2 miles in the
even 2 hours, the Great West­
ern

Railway

dredweight, and the tender­

Company have

recently constructed at their
Swindon works a large loco­
motive of· the "Pacific" type.
This locomotive is unique, in­

carried on two four-wheeled
bogies, a further innovation

A

in Great Western practice­
weighs in working order an
additional 45 tons 15 hun­
dredweight, giving the loco­

asmuch as it is the first loco­
motive having this wheel ar­
rangement to be designed for
any British railway and Is
moreover by far and away the
heaviest

and most

motive an aggregate weight
on metals of no less than 143

Fig. I.-Details of the Vane.

tons. The total length over
buffers is 71 feet 214 inches:
For some years the heaviest

powerful

railway engine ever built in
Great Britain. This 10.como;
tive, which has been chris­; 
tened "The Great Bear," is a
development of the "Star"

locomotives in Great Britain
have been the six-wheeled

Fig. 2.-Contact Table.

coupled hogie engines built by
the Caledonian Railway Com·
pany for working the heavy

class of six-wheeled coupled

Anglo-Scottish West Coast ex­
press services, as between
'
Carlisle
and
Glasgow,
on
which section of 10214 miles

bogie iocomotives, several of
which have during the past
few years been built at the
Great Western Railway Com­
pany's
having

works at
the same

driving
valve

wheel,
gear

Swindoll,
cylinder,

valve

and

of track is to be encountered
the famous climb over the

Fig. a-Contact
Roller.

Beattock Summit. Of these
Scottish-built
engines, t h e

Fig. 5.-'fhe Indicator.

arrangements.

"Cardean," weighing 130 tons,
has previously held the Brit­

By the adoption of the pair
of trailing wheels, it has been

ish record. - This engine, ex­

possible however to obtain in

clusive of its tender, weighs
73 tons, or 24 tons 5 hundred­

the "Pacific" engine a greatly
increased size of firebox 'and

weight
which,

to lengthen the boiler very
considerably, as will be seen
by a reference to the accom­
panying photograph
mensioned diagram.

Great Western locomotive, is
not fitted with the pick-up
water apparatus and is conse­

and di­
The en­

quently of

gine has coupled wheels 6
feet 87'2, inChes, bogie wheels
3

feet

8

inches

.....,

diameter. The leading coup­
led wheels are directly driven
by a pair of inside cylinders
set in advance of the bogie

ders

outside

the

frames

dimen­

tender of "The Great Bear."

in

center, with connecting rods
acting on the crank . axle,
While a second pair of cylin­

abnormal

sions, weighs 11 tons 5 hun­
dredweight more than the

3 .feet 2 i�hes, and trailing
wheels

less, but its' tender,
unlike that of the

WEATHER VANE

WITH

AT­

TACHMENT FOR INDOOR
READINGS.
Fig. G.-The Completp, Vane, Indicator,
Fig. <i.-Arrangement of the lUagnet!';.

and Electric Cnrr ents.

BY Wn,LIAM H. PLACE, JR.

The fact that a weather
vane must be located in an
elevated and isolated position

WEATHER VANE WITH ATTAOHMENT FOR INDOOR READINGS.

to

renders it

the rear of the bogie center drive the middle coupled
wheels.
Steam distribution is by means of piston
valves to all cylinders, the four valves being actuated
by two inside valve gears of the Walschaert type,

length of 23 feet and an outside diameter ot 6 feet,
these figures being 8. feet 2 inche-s and 6 inches respec­
tively in excess of the boiler measurements of the
Great Western Railway Company's 4-6-0 type of

difficult at times

accurately to determine the direction of the wind when
it blows. from certain points of the compass. Further­
more, it is impossible to tell at night which way the

modified to meet the special conditions of the Great
Western Railway service, and having inside and out­
side valve spindles on each side connected by a cross

engine previously mentioned.
The total heating sur­
face is no less than 3,400.81 square feet, to which the
superheater tubes contribute 54 5 square feet, the fire

vane is pointing. Hence, any indoor device which will
at all times indicate the position of the weather vane
would not be without value. Such an apparatus can
be quite easily constructed by following the directions

lever with two arms fulcrumed near. the center on the
main frame' of the engine. This arrangement of valve

tubes 2,673.45 square feet, the arched tubes 24.22 square
'
feet, and the fire box the remaining 158.14 square feet.

here given. - Briefly stated, it consists of a compass
dial having a needle actuated by electro-magnets which

mechanism is claimed to give eminently satisfactory

The superheater tubes 84 in number are each 21 feet

are individually energized according to the position of

results, and such as to completely overcome the objec-

4 inches in length and 1 % inches in diameter.

Boller: Heating' Sur1'ace,

3,400 square feet.

Of

square feet. Length 01' Fire Tube., 22 feet 7 inches.
diameter by 26 inches stroke. TractIon Efron, 29,480 pounds.

Superb eater Tub.,., 54ll

(Ooncluded on page 275.)

Boner Prenure,

Tim REAVlEST . AND MOST POWERFUL BRITISH JUDas LOCOMOTIVE.

225 pounds.

Foul' CylInder.,

15 inches

275

Scientific American

APRIL 18, Ig08.
If it is desired to know the latitude with extreme
accuracy, the value obtai,ned by this rule must be cor­

cone D.
Measure half an inch from the end of the
thread, and file a shoulder one-sixteenth of an inch all

rected for the deviation of the north star "from the

around;

true celestial pole, for the observation and refraction

and drill a 1A;-inch hole.

of light, etc.

a half of rod A and drill a hole 7 inches from the for­
ward end which will fit over the filed end of the rod

In the eighties of the last century, Dr. Kustner at

then measure 9 inches from the other end
Take the remaining foot and

Berlin, in seeking to apply a method for the determina­

C down onto the shoulder.

tion of the constant of aberration, was confronted with

the end of

an

Take a half ball M' from

old curtain pole and fasten to the for­

apparent errors of observation which refused to be

ward end of the rod.

explained by ordinary methods.

made with two spreading boards on the sides, braced

that

the

determinations

of

Finally, he announced

the

latitude

of

Berlin

showed a variation of 0.2 sec. to 0.3 sec. in the course

The tail of the vane must be

in the center, and, nailed to a firm block into which
the end of the rod is driven. After this is done melt

of not many months.
If the latitude had really
changed, this would mean that the terrestrial pole

up some lead and pour into the half ball M until the

had shifted from 20 to 30 feet.

drilled.

It was found that the theory of a shifting pole was
suggested by other facts.

rod balances on the point where the hole has been
Screw the cone D on the rod as tightly as

possible, and after placing the vane down over the

Finally, it was determined

point onto the shoulder, rivet it on, being sure that it

to set this matter at rest by an expedition to the

points in the same direction as the hole drilled n,ear
the lower end. Now drive the sawed end of the hub

Sandwich Islands.

These are, located about 180 deg.

west or east of Berlin.

If observations here showed a

receding pole at the same time that European ones dis­
closed an approaching pole, and vice versa, then there
could be no reasonable doubt that the axis of the earth
is not fixed relatively to the earth itself. The United
States government sent an officer to participate in the
observations in the Pacific.

Concurrently with these,

similar work was carried on in the United States, in
Berlin, and other places. The result of this work was
to confirm the suspected shifting of the axis.
About the time

of

these

occurrences,

Dr.

S.

C.

Chandler at Cambridge, Mass., became aroused over
the same subject.' In examining a series of determina­
tions of latitude, he found not only variations, but that

into

one end of the brass

tubing and the vane is

complete (Fig. 1).
A contact table should now be made as follows:
The table is a circular board 6 inches in diameter and
1J2 inch thick on which eight sheet brass segments
or points of contact J are arranged as in Fig. 2 to
form the eight points of the compass. A %-inch hole
should be bored through the center of the table. To
connect the Vane to the table in order to form a cir­
cuit a smali 'brass pulley wheel I is used; this can
be bought at' any hardware store. The wheel should
be about %, inch in diameter and have a long wood
screw on the end of the brass yoke in which it re­

Automatic Fire Valves.

To the Editor of the ScmNTIFIC AMERICAN:
With reference to article written by Mr. Frederic
Bradlee Abbott in your issue of January 25, the writer
cannot agree with Mr. Abbott for several reasons.
First is that it has been positively proved that in a fire
panic, persons have absolutely neglected to use any
safety precaution, -either for the safety of themselves
or building they may be in, when a fire occurs. De­
pending on some one to turn a valve or allow water
to enter the perforated pipes, as Mr. Abbott mentions,
is out of the question.
In the second place, if the valve should, 'be opened
by a person, thousands of dollars of damage might
occur before some one could get to the valve to close
it.

It would be left to the judgment of the occupants

whether or not the fire might be of sufficient magni­
tude to warrant turnin'g on the water and wetting
everything in the building, anl possibly causing ruin
to the entire building. My opinion is that the sprink­
ler system, uncharged with water, is the safest and
best protection that can be given for the immediate
extinguishing of fire, together' with the protection of
lives and property. An automatic valve placed below
the frost line or in the boiler room of a building, in
connection with the sprinkler system, is in my estima­
tion the best protection thus far afforded.
Chicago, January 24, 1908.
J. E. OSMER
• f. J.

At

volves. The wood , screw must be sawed off so that a
piece of brass rod 3/16 inch in diameter and 21J2 inches

first, he felt that while the discrepancies seemed to

long may be soldered on in its place at right angles

To the Editor of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN:

indicate a shifting pole, this was too startling a propo­
How­

to the yoke and in the plane of the wheel. An annu­
lar shoulder half an inch from the end and a thirty­

given in your valuable paper.

ever, after an immense amount of labor, he established

second of an inch deep must be filed in one end of

the fact that two periodic influences were at work, at

the short piece of brass rod, the other end of which

times co-operating to shift the pole to a maximum dis­

should be soldered where the wood screw was cut
off as stated above. The rod should be threaded as

these variations appeared to conform to some law.

sition to put forth without further confirmation.

tance, and at others to limit its variation to a very
small minimum. One of these infiuences was a yearly
one; the other had a period ranging from 121J2 to 141J2i
months.

The combination of these two influences pro­

duced a cycle of about seven years.
The amount of displacement to which the north pole
i3 thus subject is about 30 or 40 feet from a mean posi­
tion.
Dr. C):landler's first announcement was made
in 1891.
In 1893 the fact of polar variation was pretty well
admitted.

The International Geodetic Association un­

dertook the task of carrying on the observations and
reducing them to order.

At times they established

four observational posts at widely separated points,
but within about 12 sec. of the same degree of latitude;
that is, at about 38 deg. 8 min. N.
Carloforte, in the island of

These were at

San Pietro;

Mizusawa,

Japan; Ukiah, California, and Gaithersburg, Mary­
land. The officer of the last-named station is an officer
of the U. S. Coast Survey.

Aside from him, the ex­

pense involved is about $14,000 annually. Tschardjui
in Siberia and Cincinnati, Oliio, have joined in the
work. More recently, the association has added two
more

stations

in

the

southern

hemisphere-one

in

far as the shoulder and a nut procured to fit the
thread (Fig. 3).
To make, the reading instrument
cure eight

0r

indicator pro­

single magnets 1 inch long wound with

No. 24 single cotton-covered copper wire, also eight
screws % inch longer than the taps in the magnets,
and eight copper purrs with holes in them large enough
for the screws to slide through easily. Now make a
board for the magnets to be placed on 6 inches square
and % inch thick, and eight wooden blocks 1 inch
square by % inch thick. Drill a hole in each of the
blocks large enough for
through easily.

one

of the

screws to

go

Describe a circle with a diameter of 1 %, inches in
the center of the 6-inch: board, and draw lines in it
representing the eight points of the compass, viz.: N,
S, E, and W, NE, SE, NW, SW.
Lay the magnets N radially around this circle, as
shown in Fig. 4. Now at the other end of each mag­
net nail the little blocks which are set up on edge,
and secure each magnet in place with a screw which
has been run through a burr, to prevent the head of
the'screw from sinking into the block. Now connect

Australia and the other, in South America.
Fig. 4 is a curve representing the polar movement.

all the inside magnet wires to a main wire P extend­

This covers a period of six years, divided into tenths

the magnets.

from 1899.9 to 1906.0.

These points of time are i ndi­

cated by the numbers shown on the curve.

By refer­

ring to the numbers shown on the margin, the extent
of the movement may be accurately noted, remember­
ing that 1 sec. of arc is equal to about 100 feet.
The discoveries and investigation of Dr. Chandler
bave removed a mass of discordant results in the na­
tional observations of Great Britain, Russia, and the
United States from the field of unaccountable error to
that of agreement with fact.

Indeed, the accuracy of

ing around the board about 1J2' inch from the ends of
Bore nine

holes

through' the

6-inch

board, one at the end of each magnet and one for tlie
main wire to go through. Place the board and mag­
nets in a box K with a glass cover which will exactly
contain them.

Now make a small wooden cone, insert

in it a small steel needle and place it in the center
of the circle around which the magnets are arranged.
A small arrow-shaped piece of steel 0 must be bal­
anced delicately QII the cone after the manner Of a
�

compass needle.

A paper face 6 inches square with

a hole in the center 1 %, inches in diameter may be

Halluner Blo_ oC Poorly Balanced Locomotives.

I read with interest the retrospect for the year 1907
The one that appeal:3

to my mind as of the greatest importance, in relation
to the unsafety of railway travel, was the special re­
port of the Railroad Commission of the State of New
York. The report says that in the winter months of
1907 nearly three thousand broken rails were removed
from the tracks in that State alone. It seems to me
that it is about time for the State to apply the remedy
which is not far to seek.

It has been shown from

numerous experiments made by Prof. Goss that the
counterweight in the locomotive driving wheell'> strikes
a blow of 25 tons at each revolution-enough to break
any rail under proper conditions of cold and frosty
weather. They can remove at once this element of
destruction, which is a relic of a prehistoric age, and
make the l'lOnditions the same upon both sides of the
center of revolution, thus eliminating this blow and
bringing the locomotive into perfect balance. Who
ever heard of a rail breaking under a locomotive at
rest upon the rail? Neither will it break under a high
rate of speed, if properly balanced; nor leave the rail
by centrifugal force, as they frequently do without
any apparent cause, leaving destruction all along the
line.
Another reason for the removal of this relic of the
past ages is the inefficiency of our locomotives pro­
duced by it. There are few machines that I have any
knowledge of-in fact, I cannot' recall any-whose
transmission of power through frictional contact is as
great as the locomotive engine.

It is also well known

that this contact must be constant to produce the best
results.

Let us look for a moment and see what oc­

curs;' in the

downward movement of this

counter­

weight we have the stress or blow; in its upward
movement we have the lift from centrifugal force, a
constant making and breaking of contact of the wheels
with the rail, thereby losing its efficiency.
It is not only our locomotives that are off the track
(owing to their constrw;:tion), but our builders seem
to think that with a tremendous boiler and cylinder
capacity they have a tremendously powerful locomotive,

both instruments and men had been under suspicion.
These results are valuable. Thus, one method of

placed over the magnets.

This may be as elaborate as

without one thought as to the transmission of that
power through the small frictional contact. The earn­

determining the solar distance is by means of the
constant of aberratio1!- of light. This in turn is affected

Set up as per diagram, being sure that the weather
vane is a foot above the roof, and away from all trees,

ing power of the locomotive lies in its contact of the
wheels with the rail, and not in its boiler capacity.

by variation of the rotational axis in the body of the
earth. The reason for this is that it is necessary to
know the position of the observatory in order to carry

buildings, chimneys, or other obstructions.

on the calculations.

This it will now be possible to

desired (Fig. 5).

The main wire is soldered to the piece of brass
tubing B and run to the batteries H.

Thence a line G

runs to the main wire P of the reading instrument K.
A wire L should be soldered to each of the segments

ascertain with a very high degree of precision.
WEATHER VANE WITH ATTACHMENT FOR INDOOR

on the table J, and at the reading instrument should
be connected with the corresponding magnet, i. e., the

READINGS.
(Concluded from page 272.)

segment pointing north should be connected with the
north magnet, etc. It will now be seen that if the

.... I' .•

To make the vane, procure the

weather vane points north it will turn the iron C, to

front hub of an old bicycle which contains all the
ball bearings, a piece of galvanized iron rod, 61f2, feet
long, of the same diameter as the spindle in the hub

the weather vane.

which the brass wheel I is attached, to the north seg­
ment, thereby closing the circuit with the north mag­
net

in

the '-reading instrument.

That magnet will

to which the cones are attached, and a piece of brass

become magnetized and will attract the steel needle

tubing 4 feet long the inside of which will snugly

around to it.

receive the end of the hub by driving it in.

First saw

off a foot and a half from the rod, then take the
spindle oiIt of the hub, saving the cone D, which is
tapped.

Now saw the hub in two in the center.

On

•. e ...

they

are

used

locally,

but difficulties

of

transport, and the phenomenal weight of some of the
useful

kinds-e.

g.,

1. Balance up the locomotive and avoid that blow,
and keep it in constant frictional contact, thus in­
creasing its efficiency.
2.

Reduce the size of the locomotives 20 tons and

do the same work.

This can be done if the friction is

constant.
A locomotive constructed as I suggest will be much
more safe at high speed, and there will be a great
many less broken rails and accidents.
HENRY F. SHAW,
Mechanical engineer of the old school.

176 Corey Street, West Roxbtiry, Mass.

[Much attention is being paid to the question of
locomotive balancing. The best result.:; �ave been ob­
tained by the use of four cylinders, with the adjoining

There are many ,valuable woods in Colombia. Where
required,

In closing let me make a suggestion or two:

the end of the 5-foot piece of rod C for a length of

most

1 inch cut a thread, corresponding to the tap in the

almost preclude export to other countries.

guayacan

and

diomate­

cranks set in pairs at 180 deg.

There can be no doubt

that insufficient or intermittent adhesion, due to im­
perfect balancing, accounts for much loss of hauling
power in some locomotives, when they are running at
high spee1.-ED.]