مرکزی صفحہ Religious Studies Review Abject Bodies in the Gospel of Mark. By Manuel Villalobos Mendoza. The Bible in the Modern World....
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Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 41 The meat of this revised Penn State dissertation is the middle chapter, which presents archaeological ﬁndings from Tel Dan, previously largely unpublished. Greer has served on the zooarchaeological ﬁeld staff there since 2008. On the basis of seven Iron Age II deposits of bone and pottery near the “high place,” the book discusses cultic feasting at Dan during the reigns of Jeroboam, the Omrides, and the Nimshides. As the author notes, the discovery of sacriﬁcial and feasting activities at a major Yahwistic shrine would be signiﬁcant since many of the other major cultic sites from the period are inaccessible or have not been discovered. Greer admits that there is not sufﬁcient evidence to be sure that the feasting observed was part of a Yahwistic cult, but he argues that the archaeological ﬁndings “exhibit a high degree of correspondence with those of Yahwistic cult feasts described in the priestly materials in the Hebrew Bible.” An example of this is the presence of right-side portions in areas surmised to have been used by the priests (e.g., Lev 7:32–33). Yahwistic names stamped on jar handles from the period add some support here. When the book attempts to describe the cultic milieu thickly, including socioreligious changes over time, one wishes for a larger data set, but the book will be of interest to any scholar of Israelite religion. Christopher B. Hayes Fuller Theological Seminary • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2015 approaches. The book concludes with forty pages of appendices cataloguing the syntax of all the chapters’ nominal and verbal clauses. Christopher B. Hays Fuller Theological Seminary Christian Origins READING THE NEW TESTAMENT FOR THE FIRST TIME. By Ronald J. Allen. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2012. Pp. xiii + 202. $16.00. Allen here takes on the difﬁcult task of introducing the NT to those who, as the title suggests, might be reading it for the ﬁrst time. His aim is “to describe what is in the New Testament and how people in the ancient world w; ould have understood it” (x), but also to equip his readers to participate in conversations about this text and its signiﬁcance. This includes providing brief accounts of the NT’s world and ideas, as well as more basic tips like how to ﬁnd a particular verse or pronounce obscure names or vocabulary. Thus, Allen breaks down barriers of assumed knowledge and jargon that might otherwise intimidate the neophyte to biblical study. After brief instructions on how to own and operate a Bible, the bulk of the book follows a chronologic sequence through the contents and texts of the NT. Chapters on the “Big Ideas” and “Famous Passages” of the NT situate these concepts within the text itself, and another on “Using the New Testament in the Church Today” helps readers consider their own hermeneutical approach. Highlighted boxes (for tables, excurses, etc.) and occasional footnotes invite curious readers to delve deeper, while the discussion questions at the end of each chapter encourage those at any level to process their own expectations and learning. Allen’s inviting style and ability to translate complex textual or theological concepts into the vernacular of a ﬁrst-time Bible reader make this a useful resource for any curious beginner or study group. Kimberly Bauser Boston College THE ROLE OF ZION/JERUSALEM IN ISAIAH 40–55: A CORPUS-LINGUISTIC APPRAOCH. By Reinoud Oosting. Studia Semitica Neerlandica. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2012. Pp. xiv + 314. $182.00. This revised dissertation argues that a better application of method to Isa 40–55 allows certain features of the text to emerge more clearly. In a ﬁfty-page chapter on method, Oosting describes his use of a morphologically tagged computer database to identify the clause structures of these chapters, with an emphasis on “valency patterns” and “hierarchical (literary) structures.” The study concludes that “the two portraits of Zion and Jerusalem as female ﬁgure[s]” are not identical in Isa 40–55, but rather “illuminate two aspects of the relationship between Zion/Jerusalem and YHWH.” Zion is a barren woman symbolizing the promise of return from exile, while Jerusalem is a banished mother, symbolizing the rebuilding of the city. In like manner, “the children of Zion” and “the children of Jerusalem” represent different groups, although the identiﬁcation of these groups in history is set beyond the bounds of the study. Oosting ﬁnds that Second Isaiah has intertextual connections particularly with Nehemiah, but also with Zech 1–8 and Jer 30–31. He deﬁnes his method over against previous literary approaches, and protests against the emphasis on authorial literary techniques, asserting that his own analysis arises from the text itself. He repeatedly concludes that these chapters comprise a “cohesive text,” and so in this sense his method’s assumptions are not so different from traditional ﬁnal-form literary ON THE WRITINGS OF NEW TESTAMENT COMMENTARIES: FESTSCHRIFT FOR GRANT R. OSBORNE ON THE OCCASION OF HIS 70TH BIRTHDAY. Edited by Stanley E. Porter and Eckhard J. Schnabel. Texts and Editions for New Testament Study. Leiden: Brill, 2013. Pp. xxxv + 493. $225.00. This Festschrift honors Grant Osborne, a productive NT scholar who has taught for more than four decades, ﬁrst at Winnipeg Theological Seminary, then at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. The book begins with a cursus vitae detailing Osborne’s contributions to the ﬁeld between 1971 and 2011. Following these preliminary sections, the book consists of 21 chapters divided into ﬁve sections: 1) Commentaries and Exegesis; 2) Commentaries and the Hermeneutical Task; 3) 21 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 41 • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2015 he treats—textual criticism, transmission history, and translation—each deserves its own book. The value of Porter’s treatment is that he offers a readable introduction with pointers to fuller studies for those who desire it. His discussion of current issues in NT textual criticism explains to the non-specialist some very abstruse concepts. Among these is the new method adopted by the editors of Nestle/Aland, the “Coherence Based Genealogical Method.” In addition to his lucid introduction, Porter offers valuable critique of the method (32, n. 74). His brief sketch of the challenges to the traditional goals of textual criticism, the establishment of the “original” text, may be the best place for the newcomer to the discipline to begin. His proposal of two classes of manuscripts, continuous and noncontinuous, is promising. Readers will welcome Porter’s review of modern translations and the discussion of challenges facing the translator. Peter R. Rodgers Fuller Theological Seminary Commentaries and Theology; 4) Commentaries on the Gospels, Epistles, and Revelation; and 5) Commentaries and Publishers. Of the 20 contributors, all but three have experience writing some type of commentary, and most of them have published numerous commentaries. Festschriften have the dual purposes of paying tribute to the honoree while also making a contribution to the subject matter under discussion. This volume accomplishes both purposes well. Understanding and learning to use various types of commentaries is an essential part of the exegetical task. For those who regularly use commentaries and those interested in writing one, I commend this book as a valuable resource. The fourth section will prove particularly useful for students and scholars of the NT. Christopher W. Skinner Mount Olive College THE LANGUAGE OF THE NEW TESTAMENT: CONTEXT, HISTORY, AND DEVELOPMENT. Edited WRITING THE BIBLE: SCRIBES, SCRIBALISM AND SCRIPT. Edited by Philip R. Davies and Thomas Römer. by Stanley E. Porter and Andrew W. Pitts. Early Christianity in its Hellenistic Context. Leiden: Brill, 2013. Pp. x + 525. $189.00. The essays in this volume approach Hellenistic Greek from several perspectives. As the subtitle suggests, the book is divided into three sections: “Context,” which includes discussions of bilingual interference, idiolect, Attic and Hellenistic conventions, and pertinent elements of the Roman imperial context; “History,” with studies on historical nuances and the evolution of the Greek language; and “Development” with discussions of word order, of the Greek of the papyri and Roman Egypt, and of developments in the Greek. In terms of pedagogical usefulness and value for exegesis, several bright spots emerge. R. Decker’s, “Markan Idiolect in the Greek of the New Testament,” discusses major grammatical features of Mark’s style and concludes that Mark’s Greek is not as poor in that area as is often suggested. J. Watt’s, “A Brief History of Ancient Greek with a View to the New Testament,” and F. Gignac’s, “Grammatical Developments of Greek in Roman Egypt Signiﬁcant for the New Testament,” likewise deserve particular attention for the NT scholar. Although the chapters are somewhat uneven in terms of substance, writing style, and ability to provoke interest in a single reader, Porter and Pitts provide a solid resource that will prove useful for scholars engaged in serious research on all aspects of NT Greek. Christopher W. Skinner Mount Olive College BibleWorld. Durham, NC: Acumen, 2013. Pp. ix + 213. $89.96. This volume is a collection of papers presented for a symposium at the University of Lausanne in 2010. The book is part of a growing stream of volumes concerned with “textuality”—the sociohistorical contexts of writers, writing, and their productions—in the ancient Mediterranean. Apropos of this agenda, the essays explore literary, cultural, and religious interests in the composition and/or editorial arrangement of texts (Curtis, Nihan, Römer, Macchi, and Brooke), the relationship between orality and the written word (Davies, Amsler, and Junod), the socioeconomic status of scribes (Jaillard and Clivaz), and the function of writing and texts with respect to their consumption (Edelman and Houston). In keeping with other volumes on the subject (major contributions are named in the introductory chapter), the geographical and historical scope remains the Eastern Mediterranean up to, and including, Late Antiquity. As with most anthologies of symposium proceedings, the volume should not be considered a comprehensive overview of the ﬁeld, but an index to the state of the discussion. In this latter capacity, the book is eminently successful in bringing together the most recent ruminations of prominent scholars in the spectrum of disciplines that contribute to this most intriguing subject matter. Bernon Lee Bethel University, St. Paul HOW WE GOT THE NEW TESTAMENT: TEXT, TRANSMISSION, TRANSLATION. By Stanley E. THE EARLIEST CHRISTIAN MEETING PLACES: ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY HOUSES? By Edward Porter. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker House, 2013. Pp. xviii + 222. $21.99. Porter’s introduction to the formation of the NT covers a vast amount of material in a brief compass. The three areas Adams. Library of New Testament Studies. London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2013. Pp. xiv + 202; Appendices. $110.00. 22 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 41 Adams explores Christian meeting venues from the earliest period to 313 CE. In Part 1, Adams shows that the scholarly consensus—namely that the earliest Christians gathered “almost exclusively in houses” (hereafter, “AEH”)—is based on assumptions about, and possible misunderstanding of, ambiguous data. This leads him to an investigation of other possible locations for early Christian gatherings, which he explores in three fascinating chapters in Part 2. Adams provides evidence that early Christians gathered in workshops, barns, warehouses, inns, rental dining rooms, burial sites, and more. These chapters provide a wealth of information not only from early Christian literature, but also from other ancient literary, papyrological, and archaeological material that clarify the role of these venues in ancient urban and rural society. Adams might have beneﬁtted from establishing a typology of “gatherings” and clarifying which types of “meetings” are most relevant in light of the history of scholarship in which this book ﬁts; most proponents of “AEH” are primarily interested in “church” gatherings. It is uncertain whether Adams’s evidence about, for example, teaching in open spaces and baptisms beside bodies of water affects the majority opinion about Christians holding “church” meetings almost exclusively in houses. Nonetheless, Adams elsewhere presents a wealth of evidence concerning “church” gatherings that counterbalances the current place of houses in the social history of early Christianity throughout the ﬁrst centuries. It is essential reading for students and scholars of the social history of early Christianity. This volume is highly recommended. Richard Last School of Religion, Queen’s University • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2015 robust anticipation of divine intervention in human affairs. Each of these original papers (and the response by Cotter) is well done, but Watson has enhanced these meeting papers with a superb methodological essay by Davina Lopez. The book is essential for those investigating miracle discourse in early Christianity. Lopez’s article in particular is a “must read” for every student of NT miracle discourse ought to be required for every graduate student in religious studies. Thomas E. Phillips Claremont School of Theology JESUS, Q, AND THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS: A JUDAIC APPROACH TO Q. By Simon J. Joseph. WUNT II/333. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2012. Pp. viii + 267. $99.95. This revised dissertation (Claremont Graduate University under James M. Robinson) seeks to overturn the existing consensus regarding the Galilean provenance of Q. Joseph argues that Q shares an apocalyptic and wisdom orientation with the sectarian and presectarian documents discovered at Qumran and that this shared orientation likely results from a shared cultural background in the Essene ideals taught at Qumran. In Joseph’s reconstruction, both Jesus and John the Baptist—particularly the Baptist—were deeply inﬂuenced by the hostility that the Essenes held toward the priests and the temple establishment. According to this reconstruction, Q becomes our best witness both to early Christianity in Judea and to the historical Jesus. This witness was muted by the Jewish war when the Q community’s Jewish Christian population—like the equally antitemple Essenes—was wiped out by the conquering Romans. Although Joseph’s claims are disciplined and carefully nuanced, his conclusions unavoidably rest upon a large number of historical conjectures and educated guesses. Informed readers will offer legitimate criticisms at many points. However, the volume deserves a careful reading from scholars in the ﬁeld, and it should take its place as one of the leading theories for the origins of Q. Thomas E. Phillips Claremont School of Theology MIRACLE DISCOURSE IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. Edited by Duane F. Watson. Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2012. Pp. 288. $35.95. The impetus for this important work is a research project, “The Rhetorical Function of Miracles in the New Testament,” which met at the 2001 meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature. The section was designed to apply rhetorical analysis to the NT’s miracle narratives and discourses in dialogue with Wendy Cotter’s groundbreaking resource book on miracle texts in the ancient world. The volume opens with rhetorical classiﬁcations by Vernon Robbins and Gregory Bloomquist. Scholars who are familiar with rhetorical criticism may ﬁnd these 2001 essays dated. In the subsequent chapters, Todd Penner makes a forceful case for the anti-Roman implications of the miracles in Luke-Acts, while Gail O’Day emphasizes the pedagogical function of the signs narratives and discourse in John. Watson helpfully examines Paul’s repeated claims to miracle working in his undisputed letters while noting the absence of such claims in the disputed Pauline letters. David deSilva observes the irony that Revelation contains no signiﬁcant miracle discourse even though the book has a MATTHEW. Edited by Nicole Wilkinson Duran and James P. Grimshaw. Texts @ Contexts Series. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2013. Pp. xvii + 336. $49.00. This book provides sixteen expositions of Matthew that exemplify the rereading of the Gospel within the contexts of twenty-ﬁrst century readers who stand apart from the traditional western biblical interpretation. The authors attempt to move the focus of biblical interpretation from “the center” to “the margins” and from “the heard” to “the unheard” by acknowledging manifold readers’ contexts a legitimately meaningful reading. The essays, which foreground the reading of the Gospel from diverse contextual angles, are organized into ﬁve sections characterized by different viewpoints like “children and family” and “community and 23 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 41 • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2015 EXPERIENCING IRONY IN THE FIRST GOSPEL: SUSPENSE, SURPRISE, AND CURIOSITY. By Karl borders.″ These groupings do not show how the sixteen essays connect even though this seems to be the aim. This would have been improved by the insertion of a concluding chapter reinstating the general principle and methodology of the contextual readings. In these essays, however, underrepresented voices are given due respect as authentically appealing to global minds despite rising from distinctively contextualized perspectives, such as a postcommunist (Novakovic); a single mom (Dickerson); one with disabilities (Grimshaw); and a citizen whose border is in conﬂict (Weaver). Considering that the book introduces a relatively new biblical interpretive methodology grounded in modern contextual theology, it will promote an interest in this ﬁeld of study and spur sharpened academic endeavors. Inhee C. Berg Concordia University College of Alberta McDaniel. Library of New Testament Studies. London: Bloomsbury, 2013. Pp. vii + 195. $120.00 McDaniel utilizes the tools of literary criticism to argue that Matthew’s narrative is shaped to elicit suspense, surprise, and curiosity from readers. Giving precedents in ancient literature, McDaniel demonstrates the plausibility of such a reading. In broad strokes, the following represents the heart of the book’s argument. The announcement in 1:21 (“he will save his people from their sins”) establishes the expectation that Jesus will receive a warm Jewish reception. As the narrative unfolds this seems increasingly unlikely, eliciting suspense. For those who have read the Gospel from the beginning (a “sequential” reading), 28:19 then comes as a “surprise ending”—Jesus’s “people” is identiﬁed with “all nations.” This revelation instills “curiosity,” spurring the reader to re-read the Gospel in light of its conclusion (a “recency” reading). With the end in view, the reader discovers subtle ways the ending is anticipated. Other ironic subplots are also examined, for example, the disciples’ surprising lack of faith in Jesus. Although one suspects informed sequential readers would be less surprised than McDaniel suggests and while some will ﬁnd certain moves unconvincing (e.g., 21:43 is applied to the whole of the Jewish people), the book insightfully explores subtleties of Matthew’s narrative too often overlooked and should be required reading for serious students of Matthew. Michael Patrick Barber John Paul the Great Catholic University PETER—APOCALYPTIC SEER: THE INFLUENCE OF THE APOCALYPSE GENRE ON MATTHEW’S PORTRAYAL OF PETER. By John R. Markley. WUNT, II/348. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013. Pp. xv + 285. €79.00. Providing a detailed analysis of 14 Jewish and Christian apocalypses, Markley argues that Matthew, following Mark, has portrayed Peter as “principal apocalyptic seer” among the Twelve (also seers). Correspondingly, Jesus is discloser of kingdom revelation. Markley identiﬁes these characteristics of apocalyptic revelation: use of exclusionary statements, narrative isolation, and (future) dissemination details, along with emphasis on the seer’s “cognitive humanity” (difﬁculties comprehending revelation) and “emotional and physical humanity” (e.g., distress and fear). Markley argues that Mark and Matthew exhibit these elements, thereby showing reliance on apocalyptic literary features for portrayals of the disciples and Peter. A textual lens for Markley is Matt 11:25–27, which frames the narrative as apocalyptically focused. Given the apocalyptic feature of a heavenly ﬁgure correcting a seer’s quest for understanding (e.g., 4 Ezra), Markley largely rehabilitates the Matthean portrayal of Peter. Yet the heavenly ﬁgure of 4 Ezra does not expect that Ezra should have understood, as Jesus does in Matthew (15:16; contra Markley). Additionally, the Gospels’ narrative genre suggests understanding characterization vis-à-vis all characters, some of whom are more exemplary of understanding than Peter and the Twelve (e.g., Matt 8:5–13; 9:20–22). This commends comparison of the disciples not only with extratextual apocalypses, but also with textual exemplars, complicating Markley’s more positive portrayal of Peter. Markley is strongest in comparative work on apocalypses and highlighting Markan and Matthean apocalyptic features within Jesus’ teaching. His thesis is weaker as he draws signiﬁcant genre parallels between features of apocalypses and Matthew. Jeannine K. Brown Bethel Seminary THE AUDIENCE OF MATTHEW: AN APPRAISAL OF THE LOCAL AUDIENCE THESIS. By Cedric E. W. Vine. Library of New Testament Studies. London: Bloomsbury, 2014. Pp. xiv + 235. $114.00; £63.00. This book aims at deconstructing arguments used in reconstructions of local community settings within and for which the Gospel of Matthew was presumably written. Vine begins with reviewing what he describes as the current scholarly impasse, concluding that previous reconstructions display hermeneutical ambiguities and treat the text as a mirror of an assumed community (Chapter 1). Analyzing Overman’s, Saldarini’s, and Sim’s work, Chapter 2 argues that narrative features such as characterization and plot have been neglected. Uses of Peter in Matthean and Markan community reconstructions are then assessed in Chapter 3, leading over to a critique from an oral/aural perspective (e.g., performance, setting, and impact) in Chapters 4–6; here, Vine claims that scholars presume intentions for the gospel that are different from what would have been experienced reality. A brief summary and prospects for future research is provided in Chapter 7. According to Vine, local audience reconstructions are nonviable, the only options remaining being general: either “Jewish-Christian” or “all Christian” audiences. Although the study does not offer, 24 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 41 constructively, a new methodology, nor present an alternative audience reconstruction, Vine raises important questions. The book contains ﬁne observations, exposing weaknesses in several audience reconstructions. Some issues need more attention than they are given, such as the contribution of sociology and social-scientiﬁc approaches, the signiﬁcance of (speciﬁc forms of) halakhah, and institutional settings within which textualization/reception may have taken place. While Vine’s study will not be the last word in this debate, it should not be ignored in future discussions. Anders Runesson McMaster University • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2015 stories. However, Villalobos Mendoza queers theology, but not Mark itself. For example, he notes but does not discuss the young man of Mark 14:51–52, except to treat him as a coward, and he cites one of Morton Smith’s books on Clement’s “Secret Gospel of Mark” but never mentions Clement’s text. Despite Villalobos Mendoza’s distinctive perspective and evident mastery of the theories, he does not for the most part read the Markan texts “differently.” Instead he treats the fragmentary qualities of the gospel of Mark as signs of “deformity” or “mutilation,” as have many others, and not as themselves a signiﬁcant difference. George Aichele Adrian, MI MARK. By Mary Ann Beavis. Paideia: Commentaries on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2011. Pp. xiii + 302. $27.99. Beavis’s excellent commentary, in a series emphasizing the pedagogical aims of NT texts, is written for contemporary students. It is an impressive work of scholarship and will be valuable for a wide variety of NT readers. Beavis’s knowledge of Greco-Roman and Jewish sources is extensive, and the text contains numerous relevant photos of architectural and historical locations, diagrams, quotes from ancient sources, and sidebars with discussions of key issues that help to contextualize the gospel for students. She includes a section on introductory matters, traces the narrative ﬂow and considers theological issues for each section of the gospel, and offers many insights into the narrative construction of the gospel. The text is both erudite and accessible, making it an ideal text for a variety of courses on the gospel from the undergraduate level to graduate level introductions to the gospel or NT. Beavis has solidiﬁed her importance as a Markan interpreter and provided a resource for contemporary and future readers of Mark. Thomas M. Anderson London School of Theology THE ELIJAH-ELISHA NARRATIVE IN THE COMPOSITION OF LUKE. Edited by John S. Kloppenborg and Joseph Verheyden. Library of New Testament Studies. London: Bloomsbury, 2014. Pp. viii + 170. $120.00. This collection of essays from prominent North American and European scholars offers a much-needed critical discussion of Luke’s use of the Elijah-Elisha narrative (1 Kings 16:29–2 Kings 13). These essays attempt to contextualize Luke’s use of the Elijah-Elisha narrative within the Synoptic discussion, with authors situating their responses within several solutions to the Synoptic problem (i.e., Proto-Luke, 2DH, Q + /PapH). The essays approach these questions using, variously, the frameworks of redaction, imitation, and rhetorical education (progymnasmata). All of the contributors agree that the Elijah-Elisha narrative inﬂuenced the composition of Luke to some degree; the dialogue between the contributors pertains to the degree of this inﬂuence. The opinions expressed range from minimalist to maximalist stances; the latter, represented by T. Brodie and J. Shelton, hold a position of prominence in this volume as several of the other essays respond to them. Because it includes a diverse collection of scholarly reﬂections on the extent of Luke’s use of the Elijah-Elisha narrative, this volume both offers well-reasoned points and counterpoints within which future studies can situate themselves and also suggests potential avenues for fruitful investigation: for example, how Luke’s use of the Elijah-Elisha narrative compares with other (Greek, Roman, Jewish, Christian) writers’ use of antecedent texts. Michael Kochenash Claremont School of Theology ABJECT BODIES IN THE GOSPEL OF MARK. By Manuel Villalobos Mendoza. The Bible in the Modern World. Shefﬁeld, UK: Shefﬁeld Phoenix Press, 2012. Pp. ix + 210. $72.00. Drawing upon the critical theories of Judith Butler (and others) and autobiographical perspectives from “the other side,” Villalobos Mendoza examines characters in the Markan Passion narrative, including Judas, the Roman soldiers, Jesus, the anointing woman, the maid who confronts Peter, Simon the leper, and the man carrying a water jar. The book includes an introduction, ﬁve chapters, and a concluding “letter” from the author to “the Markan Community,” as well as bibliography and indexes of references to authors and ancient texts. Well written and accessible to advanced undergraduates, it offers valuable contributions to queer, autobiographical, and postcolonial readings of the Markan THE ROMAN ARMY AND THE EXPANSION OF THE GOSPEL: THE ROLE OF THE CENTURION IN LUKEACTS. By Alexander Kyrychenko. BZNW, 203. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014. Pp. xi + 228. $126.00. This revision of the author’s doctoral dissertation (Emory University, directed by C. Holladay) aims to explain the literary function of the Roman army in Luke-Acts. Kyrychenko places his analysis of Lukan narratives that 25 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 41 • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2015 REJECTED PROPHETS: JESUS AND HIS WITNESSES IN LUKE-ACTS. By Jocelyn McWhirter. Minne- refer to the personnel and activity of the Roman army within the framework of literary and material references to the Roman military spanning approximately three hundred years. The selected intertexts—an impressive array of Greek, Roman, and Jewish texts—are used to demonstrate the generally negative image of soldiers in ancient literature. He also compares the Lukan presentation of centurions with those of Matthew and Mark. He concludes with the observation that soldiers in Luke-Acts are presented much more favorably than they are in the earlier Gospels and in GrecoRoman and Jewish literature more generally. Some readers will wonder if Kyrychenko’s scope—limited to literary and material references to the Roman military—affected his conclusions. Especially pertinent (and omitted) are dramatic presentations of soldiers—in comedy and tragedy—and the most famous story in antiquity, the Iliad; these literary sources undoubtedly affected popular attitudes toward soldiers. Some may also question whether Kyrychenko’s sanguine evaluation of Luke, and the Roman army could have been tempered by other considerations (e.g., did Luke lessen the culpability of the Roman army in order to heighten the guilt of the Jewish opponents?). These questions notwithstanding, Kyrychenko’s work is important for the way in which it situates Luke-Acts within such a wide-ranging collection of texts. Michael Kochenash Claremont School of Theology apolis, MN: Fortress, 2013. Pp. x + 144. $29.00. This book is the author’s attempt at identifying the unifying theme(s) of Luke-Acts in preparation for teaching a course. McWhirter’s conclusion: the protagonists of LukeActs are fashioned in the likeness of prophets from the Hebrew Bible in order to make a number of the signiﬁcant events within the narrative more palatable, most of which are presented as occurring due to Jewish rejection. Narratives about John the Baptist, Jesus, Peter, and Paul are modeled on Hebrew Bible episodes about Moses, Samuel, Elijah, Elisha, and Jeremiah. Moreover, Luke utilizes quotations from and allusions to prophecies of Hosea, Zephaniah, Zechariah, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel at critical junctures within Luke-Acts. With the prophetic model in mind, the Jewish rejection of Jesus and his witnesses— along with the attendant offer of salvation to Gentiles and the destruction of Jerusalem—becomes comprehensible. One notable omission is Luke’s use of Jonah. Although McWhirter includes a brief paragraph on Jonah in Luke 11:29–32 (64), she neglects Luke’s use of the Jonah narrative in Acts 9:36-11:18 and 27:1–44, both of which would have aided her case since they involve extending the gospel to Gentiles. Some scholars might also wonder about how Luke’s use of other intertexts (for instance, Socratic narratives or Euripides’ Bacchae) ﬁts in with the author’s schema. On the whole, McWhirter’s accessible work is recommended for scholars, students, and clergy alike as a concise, but thorough, handbook on Lukan intertextuality with Hebrew Bible prophets. Michael Kochenash Claremont School of Theology LUKE-ACTS AND “TRAGIC HISTORY”. By Doohee Lee. WUNT, II/346. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013. Pp. x + 310. $135.00. This revised dissertation (at Graduate Theological Union under David Balch) addresses the much-debated issue of the genre of Luke-Acts. After exhibiting a ﬁrm grasp of the current proposals, Lee proposes that scholars should consider a different “genre style,” the style of tragedy. While acknowledging Luke’s clear emphasis upon the triumph of Christianity, Lee suggests that many historians—ranging from Herodotus to Josephus—told their tales of triumph with an eye toward the tragic defeat that befell the foes of their victors. Lee’s primary critical focus falls on ﬁve elements of the tragic style in Luke-Acts: Lukan language of tragedy, Lukan portrayals of tragic disasters, Luke’s tragic portrayal of King Herod, the tragic tone of Paul’s farewell speech, and the failure of the Jews to accept their Messiah. The argument is well constructed, the thesis well supported, and the implications rich. The volume is highly recommended for scholars of Luke-Acts and persons interested in rhetoric and genre. The volume is particularly signiﬁcant for the implications that Lee’s attention to Luke’s tragic style has for the commonly asked question of the Jewish people’s “tragic” behavior as viewed from Luke’s Christian perspective. Thomas E. Phillips Claremont School of Theology DIE HERRLICHKEIT DES GEKREUZIGTEN: STUDIEN ZU DEN JOHANNEISCHEN SCHRIFTEN I. By Jörg Frey. Edited by Juliane Schlegel. WUNT 307. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013. Pp. ix + 886. $204.00. Frey is well known as one of the most highly respected interpreters of the Johannine literature in the world. As he prepares to write a much-anticipated commentary on the Gospel of John, he here publishes his collected essays on that book. The eighteen essays have all appeared elsewhere, except the opening entry, which traces the paths and perspectives at the forefront of Frey’s thinking. After the introduction, the remaining essays are divided into four broad parts: history of religion studies; studies on the context and addressees of the Fourth Gospel; studies on Johannine language; and studies in Johannine theology. These categories are broad, and the essays they contain cover some of the most important areas of inquiry pursued by Johannine scholars. Frey has contributed important, often groundbreaking, work in each of these areas. Most of the essays are written in German, with three written in English, and the vast majority of them 26 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 41 were written within the last ten years. This volume is essential reading for anyone who wishes to be attuned to the latest and most important scholarship on the Fourth Gospel. George L. Parsenios Princeton Theological Seminary • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2015 of the Fourth Gospel: God, John the Baptist, Nicodemus, the Woman of Samaria, Martha and Mary, the Beloved Disciple, and Pilate. While each author approaches their character(s) through slightly different methodological lenses, each coheres well to introduce the reader to salient examples of characterization. Noting the book is not intended to be exhaustive, this volume offers a starting place for further research, especially for students. This volume is highly recommended for research libraries and scholars of the Fourth Gospel. Douglas Estes Trinity Church/Phoenix Seminary JOHN, JESUS AND THE RENEWAL OF ISRAEL. By Richard Horsley and Tom Thatcher. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2013. Pp. iv + 201. $20.00. This book seeks to read the Gospel of John in light of the authors’ speciﬁc interests, notably perspectives on the social history of Palestine and modern views of social memory. The content is laid out in four blocks of material, called steps, suggesting a progressive development toward a ﬁnal reading of John’s gospel. Step one involves reading the social situation of ﬁrst-century Palestine as a divide between landed aristocracies and peasants. In this context, the priests and scribes are allied with the aristocracy. Messianic movements represent reactions to this divide. Step two argues that oral transmission and aural reception were dominant in antiquity; thus, gospels should be read with an eye to the whole story. Step three engages John’s story of Jesus narratively, but with an eye to historical verisimilitude. In this respect, the authors cast an appreciate eye on John’s view of the Judeans (“Jews”), especially their frequent identiﬁcation with the aristocratic leaders of Jerusalem. The conﬂict that runs through John, then, is social not religious. The ﬁnal step involves placing John’s Jesus in the social and historical milieu constructed. Jesus leads a people’s movement anticipating the end of the temple aristocracy and the temple. The writing is suitable for a broad general audience and places the Gospel of John in the center of current debates about Jesus. Mark A. Matson Milligan College LOVE IN THE GOSPEL OF JOHN: AN EXEGETICAL, THEOLOGICAL, AND LITERARY STUDY. By Francis J. Moloney. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2013. Pp. xvi + 249. $34.99. Moloney, who has written extensively on John, has accurately produced a theology of the Gospel of John with an emphasis on love, joining a growing number of recent volumes that explore John narratively and thematically. After an introductory overview of the gospel, chapters generally follow the ﬂow of John’s gospel emphasizing Jesus’s mission, Jesus’s “hour,” his farewell discourses, the passion narrative, and the resurrection narratives. One chapter focuses on the Johannine epistles. It is not until the ﬁnal two chapters and in an epilogue that Moloney draws together his insights on love in the Gospel of John, which he connects with Jesus’s (and the Father’s) mission to the world. With proper expectations, the reader will discover many gems among the exegetical observations and come away with a clear understanding of several prominent themes and motifs in the gospel, including love. Moloney refers repeatedly to the theme of “glory” and links Jesus’s “works” with his mission to glorify the Father rather than with the “signs,” which explore the ambiguity of belief. Where some might regard Jesus’s “hour” as a minor motif, Moloney views the term as a major organizing principle for the movement and theology of John. The book seems intended for a scholarly audience with the presence of untransliterated Greek and extensive footnotes, but any interested person can proﬁt with careful study. R. Jackson Painter Simpson University CHARACTERS AND CHARACTERIZATION IN THE GOSPEL OF JOHN. Edited by Christopher W. Skinner. Library of New Testament Studies. London: Bloomsbury, 2013. Pp. xxxii + 288. $120.00. The stated intent of this book is to introduce its reader to a comprehensive account of the state of research by providing fresh studies on the role of characterization in the Fourth Gospel. Skinner, who serves as general editor, introduces the work with a brief historical survey of character studies in relation to John. In Part 1, “Methods and Models for Reading Johannine Characters,” seven essays display a variety of approaches for readers to approach characters in the John narrative. Staying with the introductory model, these essays are topical in nature rather than systematic in approach. Part 2, “Johannine Character Studies,” also contains seven essays speciﬁcally focusing on major characters THE CHRISTOLOGY OF THE FOURTH GOSPEL: ITS UNITY AND DISUNITY IN LIGHT OF JOHN 6 (WITH A NEW INTRODUCTION, OUTLINES, AND EPILOGUE). By Paul N. Anderson. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2010. Pp. lxxxix + 358. $49.00. This third printing includes a new introduction, outlines, and an epilogue by Anderson while maintaining the core material intact from the original printing. These 27 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 41 • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2015 INTERPRETING THE PAULINE EPISTLES: AN EXEGETICAL HANDBOOK. By John D. Harvey. Hand- additional materials track the growth of Anderson’s theories over the intervening years since the monograph’s original publication in 1996. Anderson argues for a new understanding of the Christology of the Fourth Gospel based on his analysis of John 6. Anderson’s work focuses on John’s “dialogical autonomy,” and traces theories on the origins of the Fourth Gospel. Anderson’s original work has met with mixed reviews. Although some have touted it a seminal achievement and noted its lasting impact on issues of historicity of the Fourth Gospel, others have criticized Anderson’s assumptions toward unity and his eclectic methodology. One weakness of the current edition is aesthetic. Wipf and Stock has maintained the original 1996 typeface while introducing a new typeface in the introductions, outlines, and epilogue. This visual distinction makes for a jarring shift from the facile reading of the added materials to the cramped type of the original version. However, this aesthetic critique aside, this book provides a valuable addition to Anderson’s original contribution and is a helpful resource for scholars focusing on the origins of the Fourth Gospel. Beth M. Stovell St. Thomas University books for New Testament Exegesis. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 2012. Pp. 211. $22.99. This volume introduces students to the interpretation of the Pauline corpus with basic surveys of major topics like genre, historical background, theology, textual criticism, translation theory, and exegetical method. Harvey sees epistolary criticism as the primary tool for classifying Paul’s writings, although he argues that the interpreter must allow for ﬂexibility in the apostle’s appropriation of ancient letter forms. This approach leaves unanswered the question of whether Paul ﬂexes the letter form to the extent that epistolary classiﬁcations become limited in their usefulness. To his credit, Harvey acknowledges, even if cautiously, the value of ancient rhetorical practice in analyzing individual passages. He argues for the authenticity and unity of all thirteen letters, and he makes the case for a harmonious chronology between the epistles and Acts. Not overly burdened with footnotes, the handbook contains numerous charts, a glossary, and resource lists that add to its textbook feel. This book would be useful in any introductory course on Paul. However, the inclusion of two examples illustrating the movement from interpretation to sermon preparation indicates that seminary students and pastors are the target audience. Matthew P. O’Reilly University of Gloucestershire ALL THINGS TO ALL CULTURES: PAUL AMONG JEWS, GREEKS, AND ROMANS. Edited by Mark Harding and Alanna Nobbs. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2013. Pp. xx + 406. $50.00. This collection of fourteen essays and two appendices, authored by ﬁfteen Australia-based scholars, is a companion volume to The Content and Setting of the Gospel Tradition (Eerdmans, 2010). Chapters 1–7 treat historical issues relating to Paul and his epistles: recent scholarship, chronology, archaeology, textual transmission, and Paul’s Jewish, Hellenistic, and Roman contexts (especially his conversion, education, and political posture). Chapters 8–14 introduce and exposit all 13 Pauline epistles, closing with an overview of Pauline theology. These generally well-researched essays make for a well-executed and useful volume. Because of the number contributors, certain differences of viewpoint periodically surface, and some thematic repetition occurs (e.g., the New Perspective on Paul is introduced and discussed at least three times). The book of Acts is treated as reliable and dated early; Ephesians and Colossians are considered to be authentic; the Pastoral Epistles are unauthentic. Not many will share those historical assumptions while also being favorable toward L. L. Welborn’s complex partition theory on the Corinthian correspondence (1 Cor = 3 letters; 2 Cor = 5 letters). Nevertheless, this is a dense volume that offers widespread coverage of important historical issues relating to Paul and his letters. It will serve as a valuable reference work for intermediate-to-advanced university and seminary students. John K. Goodrich Moody Bible Institute PAULINE PERSPECTIVES: ESSAYS ON PAUL, 1978–2013. By N. T. Wright. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2013. Pp. xix + 640. $69.00. This book is a compendium of articles by N. T. Wright from a period of 35 years, nicely assembled into one accessible volume. The volume is organized both chronologically and geographically as the articles appear in sections tied to Wright’s various locations (from Oxford to St. Andrews) over the past years. The volume begins with Wright’s landmark 1978 essay on The Paul of History and the Apostle of Faith that lays out his early views on Paul’s relationship to his ﬁrst-century context. The volume concludes with the most recent article at time of publication, Paul the Patriarch (2013), which looks at the “role(s)” of Abraham in Romans and Galatians. As stated in the preface, there was no attempt to update these articles; as such, they appear in their original form. The strength of this work is that all of Wright’s articles are gathered into one easily accessible place. The weakness of course is that these articles can be found in their various original locations, and thus one wonders why one would need to purchase such a volume. Regardless of this one weakness, the volume is a wonderful testimony to the rich contributions of N. T. Wright to the ﬁeld of Pauline studies. Jason A. Myers Asbury Theological Seminary 28 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 41 PICTURING PAUL IN EMPIRE: IMPERIAL IMAGE, TEXT AND PERSUASION IN COLOSSIANS, EPHESIANS, AND THE PASTORAL EPISTLES. By Harry O. • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2015 glad to ﬁnd a new piece of the puzzle to show a clearer portrait of the historical Paul, in which the miraculous plays a signiﬁcant role in all his ministry and theology. Scholars and students of Pauline studies should have this volume on their bookshelf. Ilseo Park Claremont School of Theology Maier. New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2013. Pp. xxiv + 257. $35.00. One of the current trends in Pauline studies is placing Paul within his imperial context and Picturing Paul in Empire attempts to do just that. The book is divided into roughly two sections. Chapters 1 and 2 begin by situating Paul within the “visual culture” of the Roman Empire by investigating its imagery and practices. Adopting a postcolonial hermeneutic, Maier sifts through the Empire’s strategies and tactics and argues for a “hybridity” in Paul’s engagement of empire. The section is adeptly attuned to the sociorhetorical realities of the ﬁrst century world. The second major section (Chapters 2–4) focuses on the books of Colossians, Ephesians, and the Pastoral Epistles, which the author regards as “creative examples” of prosopopoeia. Colossians is charged with imperial imagery and persuades its audience to regard Christ alone as true triumphator. Ephesians creates a “thirdspace” where true civic harmony and concord exist. The Pastorals offer an imaginative reconﬁguration of daily Roman life that transforms even as it adopts. The work provides a wealth of helpful sources through art, iconography, and numismatics that appear liberally throughout the book. Part sourcebook and part commentary, this work is a valuable and affordable resource. Jason A. Myers Asbury Theological Seminary PAUL AND THE FAITHFULNESS OF GOD. By N. T. Wright. Christian Origins and the Question of God. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2013. Pp. xxvii + 1660. $89.00. The fourth, two-volume work in Wright’s series, Christian Origins and the Question of God, is his much-anticipated, full-length study of Paul. Wright begins with a detailed review of Paul’s world. Four preliminary chapters on his Jewish, Roman, Greek, and popular religious milieu set Paul in context. There follows an exposition of Paul’s worldview, presented through Wright’s signature foci: Story, Symbol, Praxis, and Question. The heart of the book is an explication of Paul’s thought through the lenses of monotheism, election, and eschatology. His aim is “to re-think from the ground up all kinds of previously held views about Paul.” Some may still question Wright’s assertions, such as the strong challenge to the Roman Empire within Paul’s writings, or continuing exile, or the authorship and provenance of Ephesians. Others will continue to disagree with his interpretation of speciﬁc passages, such as 2 Cor 5:21. But none can doubt that this is a landmark treatment of Paul, the standard against which other studies will be measured and from which fresh presentations of Paul will be generated for years to come. Peter Rodgers Fuller Theological Seminary PAUL AND THE MIRACULOUS: A HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION. By Graham H. Twelftree. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2013. Pp. xxv + 390. $33.00. No one can conﬁdently say that Paul was a miracle worker. Unlike Jesus, Paul has not gained fame as a miracle worker, but rather as an intellectual or a theologian among general readers and serious biblical scholars. For Twelftree, however, the representation of the historical Paul only as a theologian is the result of scholarly bias against miracles and the socioreligious context in which Paul operated. Thus, Twelftree argues that for a more holistic reconstruction of the historical Paul, it is necessary to consider thoroughly the relationship between Paul and “the miraculous.” To bolster his argument, in the ﬁrst part, he attempts to demonstrate the location of the miraculous within Paul’s Jewish, Greco-Roman, and Christian heritage. He then invites readers to reconsider Paul’s own testimony in his undisputed letters with special attention to Paul’s usage of Greek vocabulary concerning the miraculous, and his intention for the restraint of self-ostentation as a miracle worker, and how the miraculous is connected with his calling and ministry. In the last part, he delves into what later interpreters such as Luke, the disputed Pauline letters, and Church Fathers say in regard to the relationship between Paul the miraculous. When readers turn the last page, they will be SECOND CORINTHIANS. By Raymond F. Collins. Paideia Commentaries on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2013. Pp. xviii + 302. $27.99. The Paideia series seeks to illuminate the cultural, literary, and theological settings of the text in its ﬁnal form and aims to be accessible to students. No knowledge of the original languages is assumed and Collins treats the text in rhetorical units, rather than verse by verse. He writes in a clear and engaging style, which is a pleasure to read. The introduction is very short but gives a measured account of the various partition theories and is cautious about identifying Paul’s opponents with any precision. The presentation of the commentary is enhanced by numerous text boxes that shed light on matters such as the use and recurrence of particular words or themes, text critical matters or other features of the Greek manuscripts, rhetorical features such as anacoluthon and anaphora, generic considerations like common features of hellenistic letters, signiﬁcant or unusual phrases from the letter, and apposite quotations from both ancient writers and Church fathers. Collins frequently places Paul’s words in context alongside the ideas of ancient authors, both Jewish 29 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 41 and non-Jewish, and the text is supplemented with wellchosen photos. Occasionally, Collins takes a position on a disputed verse without discussing other options, such as the claim that the Spirit is received at baptism (in 2 Cor 1:21; 5:5) or that 2 Cor 5:6b is a Corinthian slogan. More typically, the exegesis is insightful and well informed. As a wideranging, fair, and reliable introduction to the text of 2 Corinthians, this commentary comes highly recommended. Philip Richardson Asbury Theological Seminary • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2015 letter. The fourth chapter provides his interpretation, but oddly he repeats his translation for each section, which thus takes up 7 of the 40 pages of the chapter, leaving very little of actual exegesis. Many texts are glossed over altogether too brieﬂy, and the comments are in the vein of restatement rather than interpretation, albeit with highlights of a few linguistic peculiarities. Those working on 1 Thessalonians will ﬁnd little new or innovative here; in fact, little that is new or innovative is even summarized by Lüdemann. Far more interesting is the ﬁrst appendix on Pauline chronology, a clear and concise conveyance of John Knox’s arguments for events in Paul’s life in which 1 Thessalonians is dated to 41 CE, almost a decade earlier than the consensus position. Overall, this is a handy volume perhaps best used as a case study for introducing the historical critical method and, more importantly, a tool to spark engaged discussion on methodology among students. Richard S. Ascough School of Religion, Queen’s University GALATIANS. By Douglas J. Moo. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2013. Pp. xx + 469. $44.99 Although Moo’s commentary evinces engagement with the full range of scholarly views, the author chooses to interact mainly with nine commentaries, which have been singled out for their distinctive contribution. Moo’s stated aim is to avoid burdening the reader with too many scholarly positions so that his own argument can take center stage. In this he succeeds, in that he is careful to present the full range of exegetical options while ﬁrmly presenting his own position on each disputed issue. Nevertheless, Moo is not afraid to hold positions tentatively in places where a ﬁnal interpretive decision is difﬁcult to reach. A lengthy introduction sets out Moo’s position as a critic of the “New Perspective on Paul” and critiques the work of some key proponents, such as James D. G. Dunn, N. T. Wright, Francis Watson, and John Barclay. Like his Romans commentary, Moo argues for a modiﬁed traditional reading, close to that of the Reformers. That said, he is fair to those with whom he disagrees, and in light of this, it is notable how often he cites Dunn with approval. Although there is careful interaction with Greek in the text, all languages are translated and an “Additional Notes” section at the end of each pericope deals with more technical matters, including text criticism. Moo writes well and presents a full and reliable summary of every exegetical discussion. His commentary will also serve as a good, up-todate dialogue partner with commentators such as Dunn and Richard Longenecker. Philip Richardson Asbury Theological Seminary EPHESIANS: A COMMENTARY. By Stephen E. Fowl. The New Testament Library. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2012. Pp. xvii + 249. $40.00. This modest-size commentary by an established Pauline scholar is a ﬁne contribution to the NTL series. It is not Fowl’s goal to say the last word on Ephesians, but to contribute to the ongoing conversation about Ephesians as Scripture. As such, the commentary is less concerned with summarizing scholarly debates than with plotting the argument of the letter. Greek terms are transliterated, and footnoting is kept to a minimum. The book opens with a thirty-page introduction devoted mostly (nineteen pages) to discussion of authorship; Fowl believes the historical Paul or a close associate wrote the letter, although he concedes the issue is not crucial for doing theological exegesis. Subsequent chapters treat major epistolary units and contain an introduction to the relevant passage, a translation of the passage, technical notes on the translation, and comments on each verse. Fowl’s reading of the letter is fairly standard: the “powers,” “authorities,” et al. are spiritual beings that inﬂuence social, political, and material forces; the quotation of Psalm 68 in Eph 4:9-10 is an allusion to Christ’s ascension and outpouring of the Spirit; putting on the armor of God in Eph 6:10-20 requires one to assume the virtues discussed in Eph 4-5. This volume will make a ﬁne, user-friendly textbook for courses on Ephesians and should be a part of every seminary library. John K. Goodrich Moody Bible Institute THE EARLIEST CHRISTIAN TEXT: 1 THESSALONIANS. By Gerd Lüdemann. Salem, OR: Polebridge, 2013. Pp. x + 143. $19.00. This is an interesting little book on a number of fronts. On the one hand, there is not much that is new here as Lüdemann reiterates arguments that he has made elsewhere. At the same time, it is nice to have his ideas gathered into one convenient place. The actual material on 1 Thessalonians is, however, rather thin, both in the number or words given to exegesis and the detail of the interpretation. After two brief introductory chapters on Paul and 1 Thessalonians, respectively, Lüdemann provides a fresh translation of the SOCIAL-SCIENCE COMMENTARY ON THE DEUTERO-PAULINE LETTERS. By Bruce J. Malina and John J. Pilch. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2013. Pp. xii + 298. $39.00. 30 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 41 Covering all of the Pauline letters whose authenticity is disputed by modern scholars (Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, and the Pastoral Epistles) as well as the letter to the Hebrews (previously attributed to Paul), Malina and Pilch guide their readers into a reading process oriented by social structures and cultural norms from the ﬁrst century CE. The authors intend this study to supplement traditional commentaries, and it consists of two parts: textual notes and reading scenarios. Each chapter begins with an outline of the text followed by a translation (NRSV) with brief explanatory notes, presented section by section. (The sections on the Pastorals are disproportionately substantial, constituting nearly forty-seven percent of the textual notes.) The value of this volume lies less in the textual notes, however, than in the reading scenarios, which help modern readers situate their readings within the framework of select ﬁrst-century social and cultural conventions. The authors use bold font to indicate that they explain certain terms or phrases—the “reading scenarios”—in the back of the book (e.g., “Lying,” “Patronage System,” and “Alternate States of Consciousness”). By creating a glossary of reading scenarios, Malina and Pilch save themselves from needless repetition: a number of these forty-ﬁve concepts recur frequently throughout. This commentary will be a helpful addition to any collection of Pauline studies. Michael Kochenash Claremont School of Theology • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2015 that discuss a wide range of topics. The usefulness of the volume will be entirely dependent on one’s focus of research. Jason A. Myers Asbury Theological Seminary BORN OF A VIRGIN? RECONCEIVING JESUS IN THE BIBLE, TRADITION, AND THEOLOGY. By Andrew T. Lincoln. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2013. Pp. xii + 322. $35.00. Persons who want a simple “yes” or “no” answer to questions about the historicity of the virgin birth should not read this book, but persons who want to think in a careful and nuanced fashion about the traditions and doctrinal developments surrounding the virgin birth deﬁnitely should. After carefully investigating both the Biblical texts and their Greco-Roman (pagan and LXX) backgrounds, Lincoln argues that the traditional reading of Matthew and Luke as advocates of a literal virgin birth is more convincing than revisionist readings which ﬁnd no virginal conception in the gospels. However, Lincoln also recognizes that other NT texts seem to presume that Jesus had a human father (typically Joseph). Lincoln then traces the development of virgin birth traditions from the second century to Augustine, acknowledging that the tradition of a virginal conception quickly gained ascendency among Christian thinkers until the Renaissance. Schleiermacher serves as the primary representative of a modern thinker who retains a commitment to both the humanity and divinity of Jesus even while denying the plausibility of a literal virgin birth. The book closes with a disciplined and enviable discussion of the hermeneutical challenges of doing theology in the modern world while engaging a diverse set of Biblical traditions. This book is a model of mature and disciplined theological discourse. The volume has far more to offer than a simple pro and con analysis of the historical realities behind Jesus’s birth; it offers an excellent model of engaging in Biblical theology in the modern world. Thomas E. Phillips Claremont School of Theology PURITY, HOLINESS, AND IDENTITY IN JUDAISM AND CHRISTIANITY. Edited by Carl S. Ehrlich, Anders Runesson, and Eileen Schuller. WUNT, 305. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013. Pp. x + 313. €129.00. Before her untimely death, Susan Haber’s research focused on the issue of purity in the Hebrew Bible through the NT period, with her specialization concentrating on the Dead Sea Scrolls. In light of her impact, the present volume highlights the importance of purity and holiness in the formation of identity in both Judaism and Christianity. The book is organized chronologically in three parts. Part 1 consists of three essays on ancient Israel including the structure of Leviticus 23 and the festival calendars; the popular perceptions of the cult; and the issue of purity in Chronicles. Part 2 consists of eight essays on the period of 2 BCE to 3 CE, including essays on the importance of sanctuary metaphors, sacred space, and holiness in Paul. There is one chapter on the historical Jesus as well as two essays on purity in Matthew and Mark. Part 3 concludes the work with three essays on the medieval and modern periods. One essay looks at holiness and purity in the Rabbinic writings and their reception in the medieval period while a second focuses the role of Bialik’s 1903 poem as a response to the Kishinev pogrom in Russia. The ﬁnal essay appropriately concludes by investigating contemporary Jewish-Christian relations. The volume consists of many excellent and accessible articles PRACTICING GNOSIS: RITUAL, MAGIC, THEURGY AND LITURGY IN NAG HAMMADI, MANICHAEAN AND OTHER ANCIENT LITERATURE. ESSAYS IN HONOR OF BIRGER A. PEARSON. Edited by April D. DeConick, Gregory Shaw, and John D. Turne. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies. Leiden: Brill, 2013. Pp. 584. €180.00. This dedicatory volume recognizes Professor Birger Pearson and his ﬁfty-year contribution to the study of Gnosticism, including the less studied aspects of ritual, magic, liturgy, and theurgy of Gnosticism. The essays contained herein aim at expanding our knowledge about everyday initiatory, recurrent, therapeutic, ecstatic, and philosophical 31 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 41 practices of the Gnostics. A tribute to Professor Birger Pearson and his vast literary work precedes the sections dealing with the above ﬁve topics. The articles focus on religious syncretism, as each one studies Gnosticism in relation to other religious traditions (Judaism, Christianity) and Gnostic movements (Manichaeism, Mandaeism, Valentinianism) of Late Antiquity. The authors demonstrate that Gnosticism did not rely on epistemological certainties, but its cultivators relied also on every day religious practices. Every research or seminary library interested in Gnosticism, Neoplatonism, or Mysticism in Late Antiquity should have a copy. Spyros P. Panagopoulos Ionian University • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2015 to its spread to all corners of the nation, to its height in Explo 72 in Dallas where some 180,000 gathered to hear Billy Graham, Bill Bright, and Arthur Blessit, to its denouement and end in the late seventies. Along the way, he introduces many of the local leaders and musicians who shaped the movement. Among these was “Moses” Berg and his Children of God who brought scandal and reproach on the thousands of Jesus People whose lives were authentically and radically changed by the gospel. Some of the long-term effects of the movement on American Christianity is the contemporary music that has permeated most Evangelical and Pentecostal churches to this day, the relaxed dress styles of many pastors of megachurches that were inﬂuenced by the movement, and such newer denominations as Smith’s Calvary Chapels, John Wimber’s Vineyard churches, and Bill Hybell’s Seeker Sensitive Willow Creek associated churches. Vinson Synan Regent University School of Divinity BEYOND THE GNOSTIC GOSPELS: STUDIES BUILDING ON THE WORK OF ELAINE PAGELS. Edited by Eduard Iricinschi, Lance Jenott, Nicola Denzey Lewis, and Philippa Townsend. Studien und Texte zu Antike und Christentum. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013. Pp. x + 517. €99.00. This book is divided into ﬁve parts: I: The Social World of Early Christians (with articles by Michael A. Williams, Karen L. King, and Einar Thomassen); II: Creating Orthodoxy and Heresy (Geoffrey S. Smith, David W. Jorgensen, and April D. DeConick); III: Ritual and Myth (Nicola Denzey Lewis, John D. Turner, Marvin Meyer†); IV: Christianity in Egypt (Hugo Lundhaug, AnneMarie Luijendijk, Eduard Iricinschi, Lance Jenott, and Deirdre Good); and V: New Testament Studies (Ismo Dunderberg, Harold W. Attridge, Holger M. Zellentin, John G. Gager, and John W. Marshall). A bibliography, list of contributors, and indices are also included. This collection of cutting-edge scholarly articles, some of them by her own students, is a ﬁtting tribute to one of the leading scholars of our time. Birger A. Pearson University of California, Santa Barbara Jewish Thought ENCYCLOPEDIA OF JEWISH FOLKLORE AND TRADITIONS. By Raphael Patai, Founding Editor, and Haya Bar-Itzhak, Editor. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2013. Pp. xvi + 594 + 44 (index) in two volumes; plates. $158.00. Although it is an impossibility to include in one book, even in two double-columned volumes, a full and detailed picture of every aspect of folklore in every Jewish community now and in the past, this volume is a very useful survey of the ﬁeld and goes well beyond what has been available until now. The editors made a conscious attempt to cover many different communities and many areas of life. The text does not presume previous knowledge about Jewish folklore and is clear and concise. Therefore, it is a very useful both as a starting point for studying Jewish folk religion and also for comparative purposes. The entries cover traditional folklore topics as well as researchers, regions, relevant literary texts, and more. The bibliographies at the ends of almost each entry and the comprehensive bibliography of anthologies of Jewish folklore appended to the encyclopedia can be used by students to locate additional sources and information while the exceptionally detailed and user-friendly index adds to the utility of the encyclopedia. The large format makes the double columns possible without sacriﬁcing clarity in the layout. The many plates are illustrative and attractive—and encourage additional reading. This is a pioneering and useful work that is attractive in the literal sense; it should attract users to further reading and studying. It is a very useful addition to Judaica collections as well as collections with strengths in folk and popular religion. Shaul Stampfer Hebrew University History of Christianity (Modern) GOD’S FOREVER FAMILY: THE JESUS PEOPLE MOVEMENT IN AMERICA. By Larry Eskridge. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013, Pp. xii + 386. $35.00. This well-researched and deftly written book will probably become the deﬁnitive history of the Jesus People movement, which caught the attention of the American public in the early 1970s. As a history professor at Wheaton College, Eskridge depicts the movement as an evangelical phenomenon, although the Jesus People were overwhelmingly Pentecostal in both theology and practice. This being said, Eskridge expertly traces the movement from its early days among the drug-addicted hippie converts at Chuck Smith’s Calvary Chapel in Costa Mesa, CA, 32 Copyright of Religious Studies Review is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. 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