مرکزی صفحہ Religious Studies Review The Letter to the Romans: Salvation as Justice and the Deconstruction of Law. By Herman C. Waetjen....
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Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 39 • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2013 Christian Origins of three major ﬁgures: Montaigne, Francis Bacon, and Gassendi. In his revealing treatment of Montaigne’s Lucretius, Passannante writes, “Not even an Epicurean conﬁdence could save the DRN from its own self-fulﬁlling prophecy.” This judgment is prompted by Montaigne’s notes to his Lucretius and can be paraphrased as Quot lectores tot Lucretii. In a strange way, this attitude of relativity is Epicurean and can be summed up in Epicurus’s principle of multiple possible explanations (e ndcetai pleonacw̃ς). There are many passages in The Lucretian Renaissance where the attitude of the multiple possible interpretations of the DRN might be expressed by the French critical term mise en abyme, that is, the plunging of the meaning of a text into an abyss. The Gutenberg Galaxy created by the invention of moveable type generated this abyss (pp. 120-22 of Passannante’s Homer Atomized). This is exactly what happened to the text of Catullus as its fate is described in Michelle Loverick’s The Floating Book. Habent sua fata libelli. Diskin Clay, Professor Emeritus Duke University THE GREEK OF THE SEPTUAGINT: A SUPPLEMENTAL LEXICON. By Gary Alan Chamberlain. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2011. Pp. xlii + 256. Cloth, $39.95. Chamberlain’s lexicon is meant to be a supplement to BDAG for the LXX like Lampe’s lexicon is meant to be a supplement to Liddell/Scott/Jones for Patristic writings. He treats words that have additional senses in the LXX that go beyond the range of meanings in BDAG, and he has new lexical articles for words that are not treated in BDAG or whose meaning differs substantially from their meaning in the NT. His treatment of this last category of words is helpful because he deals with transliterations, proper names, and place names, which the main LXX lexicons by Lust, Eynikel, and Hauspie, and by Muraoka, do not cover. Chamberlain acknowledges that the syntax of the LXX is “translator syntax,” but he does not believe that its; vocabulary gives evidence supporting a special “Jewish-Greek dialect”; instead, he believes that the vocabulary of the LXX “is demonstrably normal Hellenistic Greek.” Thus, the foundational principle for his lexical work is “context determines meaning,” and by context he means the context in the LXX Greek sentence and then the broader context in the world of ancient Greek literature. Some will disagree with his foundational principle since he determines the meanings of words in the LXX with little if any attention to the corresponding words in their Hebrew Vorlage; it is important that all who use the lexicon understand his philosophy, which is explained in the introduction. W. Edward Glenny Northwestern College, St. Paul, MN PLOTINUS, PORPHYRY AND IAMBLICHUS: PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION IN NEOPLATONISM. By Andrew Smith. Variorum Collected Studies 979. Farnham, UK: Ashgate Variorum, 2011. Pp. xii + 342. £85.00. Smith, Professor Emeritus of classics at University College Dublin, has been publishing on neoplatonism for over three decades, and this recent volume in the excellent variorum reprints series allows the reader to trace his understanding of “the destiny of man in the universe in his relationship to transcendent reality and the role of religion in the philosophical life.” In it, he draws upon his articles and chapters from 1978 to the present, including two not yet published elsewhere, “Religion, Magic and Theurgy in Porphyry” and “Plotinus on Fate and Free Will.” Historians, particularly of religious conﬂict, will be particularly pleased by the inclusion of his ANRW chapter on Porphyrian studies, as well as his recent “[p]hilosophical objections to Christianity on the eve of the Great Persecution.” The volume is divided into three sections of articles, including thirteen on Plotinus, ten on Porphyry, and two on Iamblichus. Analyzing the complex thought of these three ancient authors requires careful scholarship, which Smith is uniquely qualiﬁed to offer. Even so, suggesting the purchase of such a collection requires a defense in our increasingly digital age. However, not every library has electronic access to every lesser known journal, and certainly not to chapters in edited volumes. Even researchers with privileges at a world-class research library will appreciate having such distilled riches at their ﬁngertips in one volume. Despite its price, this volume is highly recommended for library purchasers, as well as individual researchers specializing in neoplatonism and late antiquity. David Neal Greenwood University of Edinburgh READING NEW TESTAMENT PAPYRI IN CONTEXT—LIRE LES PAPYRUS DU NOUVEAU TESTAMENT DANS LEUR CONTEXTE. Edited by Claire Clivaz and Jean Zumstein, in collaboration with Jenny Read-Heimerdinger and Julie Paik. Bibliotheca Ephemeridum Theologicarum Lovaniensium, 242. Leuven: Peeters, 2011. Pp. xiv + 440. €80.00. This 2009 conference-based collection presents sixteen contributions in four sections: 1) “Papyrology and the New Testament” (C. Clivaz, T. J. Kraus, J. K. Elliott); 2) “Egypt, Papyri and Christians” (P. Shubert, S. Honigman, D. Stoekl, R. Burnet, K. Haines-Eitzen); 3) “Every Papyrus Tells a Story” (J. Zumstein, A.-M. Luijendijk, M. Theophilos, D. Pastorelli, J. Read-Heimerdinger and J. Rius-Camps, C.-J. Grüber); 4) “Some Further Considerations” (X. GravendTirole, Kraus). Nearly all the essays (whether broadly programmatic or more narrowly focused) contribute in some way to the volume’s theme: the importance of studying “NT papyri” (1) as documents and (2) in their broader cultural context. Too many NT scholars, it is implied, know the “NT papyri” only as symbols in a critical apparatus, in which individual readings have been extracted and isolated from the documents transmitting them. This volume argues the 34 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 39 need and beneﬁt of studying the “NT papyri” in their broader setting, not only in terms of reading them in a way that situates them in the context of Egypt and the Mediterranean world but also with respect to cataloging them (here, the importance and beneﬁts of including them in the Leuven Database are rightly emphasized). A secondary theme is the need to move away from thinking of the NT text as “un text standard et stable,” a perspective that has implications not only for exegetes but also (it is claimed) for how one conceptualizes the canon and textual authority. A valuable, provocative collection that raises important issues and questions. Michael W. Holmes Bethel University • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2013 ment. Young takes matters a step further, arguing that oral tradition is the most probable source of Jesus traditions referenced by the AF. Indeed, he contends that even if references “presupposed the ﬁnished form of the Gospel, this need not imply that they derive from a written source . . . it could just as well imply that [the referencing author] had access to oral tradition that has been impacted by its contact with a written Matthew and Luke. This would provide an example of re-oralization, or of tradition that has been committed to writing re-entering the stream of oral tradition.” This idea of “re-oralization” relativizes current methods to the point of futility, basically eliminating, in the case of early Christian literature prior to Irenaeus’s era (which strongly preferred allusion over citation), the possibility of determining whether written sources were used at all. To put it a bit differently, Young’s thesis may be unfalsiﬁable. This is a book for research libraries with comprehensive collections. Michael W. Holmes Bethel University TEXT, IMAGE, AND CHRISTIANS IN THE GRAECOROMAN WORLD: A FESTSCHRIFT IN HONOR OF DAVID LEE BALCH. Edited by Aliou Cissé Niang and Carolyn Osiek. Princeton Theological Monograph Series 176. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, 2012. Pp. xxxviii + 400. Paper, $48.00. This collection pays honor to the legacy of David Balch in his exploration of Greco-Roman household structures, architecture, art, and literature as ways of opening up insights into the NT and earliest Christianity. A distinguished group of contributors make this an excellent, albeit eclectic, volume. The book coheres primarily in the common approach and goal of its contributors: to present a learned, detailed, and well-researched exploration of a point of connection between Greco-Roman society and early Christianity. The ﬁrst nine chapters pertain to households and house churches, the next six to literary and visual constructions of “the other,” and the ﬁnal six to more general visual contexts and representations of early Christianity. The volume will appeal to anyone interested in sociohistorical approaches to the NT. A perusal of the table of contents will likely turn up something of interest to almost every scholar of the NT and early Christianity. Mark Glen Bilby Point Loma Nazarene University JESUS AMONG FRIENDS AND ENEMIES: A HISTORICAL AND LITERARY INTRODUCTION TO JESUS IN THE GOSPELS. Edited by Chris Keith and Larry W. Hurtado. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2011. Pp. xxiii + 328. Paper, $26.99. This collection of ten essays stems from a group of mainly British scholars, and is well introduced by Keith and Hurtado. Each chapter examines how key “friends” and “enemies” of Jesus were depicted both in ancient noncanonical writings and in the canonical gospels. The primary concern when dealing with the canonical material is to discern how these ﬁgures interact with Jesus. The aims are literary, and only unassertive historical claims are offered. The resulting discussions demonstrate a clear mastery of the relevant ancient evidence and a mature reading of the canonical texts. The limited space allows for only modest interpretative originality or creativity. Some readers will wonder if all of the characters can be so neatly divided into the categories of Jesus’s friends or foes (e.g., Jesus’s family in the friends category, and Judas in the enemy category). Perhaps some characters were a little of both. Other readers will likewise question some of the volume’s embedded assumptions (e.g., that each gospel presents a relatively coherent image of its characters, and that gospel study can proceed without signiﬁcant attention to underlying sources). Still, the volume is a useful contribution to the crowded ﬁeld of literary studies of the gospels, and the multiple indices and ample bibliography increases its value, particularly for those new to the literary study of the gospels. Thomas E. Phillips Arapahoe Community College JESUS TRADITION IN THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS: THEIR EXPLICIT APPEALS TO THE WORDS OF JESUS IN LIGHT OF ORALITY STUDIES. By Stephen E. Young. WUNT II/311. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011. Pp. xvi + 371. €84.00. This revised dissertation explores the source(s) of sayings of Jesus in the Apostolic Fathers (AF). The search for sources has moved from an approach that assumed a literary environment and viewed verbal similarities between the AF and NT documents as evidence of knowledge of the latter by the former to an approach that gives equal or greater attention to the oral environment of early Christianity and requires hard evidence of distinctive authorial redactional or stylistic features as proof of knowledge of a speciﬁc docu- CHRISTOLOGY IN THE SYNOPTIC GOSPELS: GOD OR GOD’S SERVANT. By Sigurd Grindheim. London: T&T Clark, 2012. Pp. xiv + 212. Cloth, $110.00; paper, $32.95. 35 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 39 • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2013 THE WOMAN WHO CHANGED JESUS: CROSSING BOUNDARIES IN MK 7, 24-30. By Pablo Alonso. BTS This seemingly unpretentious treatise contains a world of insights. Against a prevalent academic view that John alone, among the evangelists, proclaims Jesus to be God, Grindheim indicates the contrary, namely that Jesus was regarded as God even by the Synoptics. He does this by the simple expedient of providing a drum roll of evidence furnished by a concatenation of texts taken from the Synoptics themselves. Grindheim works separately with each Synoptic at the redactionary level; he does not deal with the question of whether Jesus considered himself to be God, only whether the Synoptics considered him to be such (the historical versus the narrative level). Still less, obviously, does he make a judgment as to whether Jesus really was God. This being said, even sympathetic readers will take issue with a few points. Did the Synoptics (or Jesus) really intend to abolish all the food laws? Grindheim says little about the Jewish ideas that would have furnished the basis for such exalted Synoptic claims about Jesus. (As an aside, “Angel” is malak, not melek). In sum, since Jesus is also obviously a man, for Grindheim the Synoptic Jesus is both God and God’s servant. This exciting and controversial treatise should not be ignored by either NT students or specialists. Casimir Bernas Holy Trinity Abbey 11. Leuven: Peeters, 2011. Pp. vii + 403. Cloth, $89.00. I highly recommend The Woman Who Changed Jesus to NT scholars across the board. In addition to Alonso’s sustained attention to interpretive details, all readers will appreciate his engagement with a wide variety of primary and secondary resources, a number of which are multilingual texts often absent from English commentaries and monographs. These praises, however, must be tempered by the fact that Alonso’s English is, at times, terribly awkward and that, much too often, he inundates readers with unnecessary parsing and grammatical-syntactical details. Even so, Alonso’s conclusions regarding the Syrophoenician woman who “changed Jesus” (Mk 7:24-30) are quite provocative. He is certainly correct that this encounter must be situated and viewed within the larger “bread section” of the Markan narrative (6:31-8:26). Set in contrast to the preceding pericope where Jesus challenges the Jewish ofﬁcials’ views concerning purity and foods (7:1-23), Alonso argues that this crossing into Gentile territory brings about an “openness . . . acquired with regard to [Jesus’] mission” that now extends to all “gentile regions.” In short, this story marks the start of Jesus’s outreach to Gentiles in Mark, which also includes his Eucharistic invitation to them. While Alonso does seem to downplay Jesus’s previous seacrossing to Gerasa (Mk 5:1-20) in order to bring Mk 7:24-30 more into view, in the end, the implications that he extracts from this “apothegm-quest story,” such as unity, human dignity, Jesus’s willingness to change his mind, and hearing God’s voice in others, are all helpful reminders of Mark’s deep relevance in today’s world. T. Michael W. Halcomb Asbury Theological Seminary, Kentucky MARK AS STORY: RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT. Edited by Kelly R. Iverson and Christopher W. Skinner. Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2011. Pp. xii + 309. Paper, $36.95. Mark as Story (1982), written by David Rhoads and Donald Michie and revised with Joanna Dewey (1999), established narrative criticism in NT studies. Iverson and Skinner’s volume is an impressive collection of eleven essays that honor that work, draw upon its signiﬁcance, and reﬂect on the future of narrative criticism and Mark’s gospel. After an opening essay by Skinner, which describes the writing, revision, and impact of Mark as Story, the book is divided into two sections (one focused on method, the other on applications of narrative criticism). The contributors (Skinner, Powell, Struthers Malbon, Moore, Moloney, Boomershine, Culpepper, Hooker, Iverson, Hearon, and Fowler) are established scholars, and each essay reﬂects the unique contributions of their work (Struthers Malbon writes on characterization, Boomershine on the oral performance of the gospel, Hooker on the “Son of God” title, etc.). The essays are followed by appreciative reﬂections from Rhoads, Dewey, and Michie, including a discussion of the writing and revision of Mark as Story, responses to issues raised by the essays, and a section of trajectories for further inquiry. The volume is rich with insight and shows the ongoing importance of narrative criticism. It is highly recommended for students and scholars alike. Thomas M. Anderson London School of Theology PROPHETIC JESUS, PROPHETIC CHURCH: THE CHALLENGE OF LUKE-ACTS TO CONTEMPORARY CHRISTIANS. By Luke Timothy Johnson. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2011. Pp. viii + 198. Paper, $23.00. This book builds upon Johnson’s exegetically rich commentaries on Luke (1991) and Acts (1992), his monograph about the Lukan mandate to share possessions (1981), and his past reﬂections on decision-making in the church (1996). Now, Johnson assembles an even more complete discussion about the manner in which the prophetic imagery of Luke–Acts provides a prophetic model for the church today. With H. J. Cadbury, Johnson contends that Luke and Acts should be interpreted as a uniﬁed narrative. In addition, he writes this volume for readers within the faith community. Consequently, even though his insightful observations are built upon solid research, he elects not to include either footnotes or a bibliography. Johnson begins by showing how John and Jesus in Luke, and the believers in Acts, embody and articulate God’s prophetic, countercultural vision for humanity. He contends further that the 36 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 39 • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2013 beginning of Jesus’s public ministry (Part 1), Jesus’s presence at the Feasts (Part 2), and the close of Jesus’s public ministry (Part 3). She demonstrates in John’s gospel that “[s]cripture . . . alienates ‘the Jews’, even as it promises them the hope of salvation.” Sheridan’s approach to the Fourth Evangelist’s use of Hebrew scriptures to characterize Jesus’s enemies, rather than Jesus himself, is novel and offers a fresh approach to the sophistication of the Johannine narrative. Unfortunately, Sheridan does not fully consider the presence of those “Jews” who respond positively to Jesus in the Johannine narrative (8:30-31; 11:45), a deﬁciency that nags the overall argument of the volume. This is an impressive contribution to Johannine scholarship that will also be relevant for those interested in interpreting the gospels in the context of Jewish–Christian dialogue. Chris Keith St. Mary’s University College, Twickenham prophetic message of Luke–Acts has several implications for contemporary Christians. As the church in Acts continues the prophetic ministry of the Lukan Jesus, Christians today should do the same. They should enact countercultural social justice, service, and generosity while avoiding selﬁsh gain and misuse of power. Ultimately, Johnson accomplishes his aim. Scholars will recognize the sophistication of Johnson’s argument. Pastors and seminarians will be grateful for his plea to enact the biblical text. Andrew Arterbury George W. Truett Theological Seminary at Baylor University JESUS AND HIS OWN: A COMMENTARY ON JOHN 13-17. By Daniel B. Stevick. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2011. Pp. xiv + 396. Paper, $30.00. This entire work has a pastoral tone, although it clearly is concerned with exploring the nuances of the Biblical text. Stevick does not provide an exposition of his speciﬁc methodology, but it is clear that he is employing narrative-critical exegesis toward the ends of theology and homiletics. He seeks to draw out the theology of the Farewell Discourse, these implications for the universal church, and how the modern church might proclaim these ﬁndings. Behind the Farewell Discourse, Stevick imagines a scenario in which those members of the Johannine community who had provided personal eyewitness contact with Jesus were passing away. This scenario necessitated the writing of the Farewell Discourse, which implements the voice of Jesus to address concerns of the Johannine community in crisis. This exegetical decision shows Stevick’s reliance upon a modiﬁed version of Martyn’s two-level reading of John. Stevick’s section-by-section commentary demonstrates concern for the literary movement of the text and includes transliterated Greek throughout. By and large, his exegesis is both substantive and pastoral. Yet Stevick assumes the Farewell Discourse as a literary unit to be contained in chapters 13-17, but since Johannine scholars are not uniﬁed on what material constitutes John’s Farewell Discourse, this choice is interesting. Christopher W. Skinner Mount Olive College SCHRIFTGELEHRTE PROPHETIE: DER ESCHATOLOGISCHE TEUFELSFALL IN APC JOH 12 UND SEINE BEDEUTUNG FÜR DAS VERSTÄNDNIS DER JOHANNESOFFENBARUNG. By Jan Dochhorn. WUNT 268. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010. Pp. xiv + 478. Cloth, €114.00. Chapter 12 of Revelation remains simultaneously foundational and enigmatic to interpreters, ﬁlled as it is with both familiar and alien imagery. Its centrality to the seer’s vision is well recognized by commentators, yet the woman clothed with the sun, her son, and the dragon that wages war against them resist easy identiﬁcation. Dochhorn’s work deviates from previous interpretations of Rev 12, especially the History of Religions school of Gunkel and Bousset. He presumes that Revelation is a text encoded with traditional Jewish and early Christian imagery, rather than one reﬂecting the distant worlds of Ancient Near Eastern, Egyptian, and Greco-Roman mythology. By “decoding” these parallels, the reader grasps the full meaning of this complex chapter. Those passages dealing with the eschatological destruction of Satan receive the most emphasis. From Jewish parallels, Dochhorn identiﬁes Satan with the Roman Empire whose destruction is assured; from the Christian texts, he identiﬁes the birth, cruciﬁxion, and exaltation of Christ as the means to Satan’s demise. This christological reading of Rev 12, thus, anticipates the anti-Roman rhetoric typically associated with the beasts of Rev 13. Best suited for libraries and specialists, Dochhorn’s work presents a fresh perspective on an old problem. C. Thomas Fraatz Boston College RETELLING SCRIPTURE: “THE JEWS” AND THE SCRIPTURAL CITATIONS IN JOHN 1:19-12:15. By Ruth Sheridan. Biblical Interpretation Series 110. Leiden: Brill, 2012. Pp. xvi + 294. Cloth, $151.00. Retelling Scripture is a revision of Sheridan’s doctoral dissertation at the Australian Catholic University. Drawing from literary-critical approaches to characterization, she focuses upon how scriptural citations in John 1:19-12:15 lead an ideal reader to characterize “the Jews” as obstinate and unbelieving Israelites from the Hebrew Bible/OT. Sheridan divides the Book of Signs into three segments, examining the intertextual references to “the Jews” in the THE CONVERSION OF THE NATIONS IN REVELATION. By Allan J. McNicol. Library of New Testament Studies 438. New York: T&T Clark, 2011. Pp. xvii + 155. $110.00. 37 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 39 • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2013 A POSTCOLONIAL READING OF THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. By Rubén Muñoz-Larrondo. Studies in Biblical McNicol examines the depiction of conversion in Revelation, with a focus on the tension between the destruction of the nations depicted in early sections of Revelation and the depiction of ultimate conversion of the nations in Rev 21:2426. He argues that the prophet’s view of the end times was shaped by key passages of scripture on the “pilgrimage of the nations.” In this view, the people of God are still living in Babylon, and Babylon must ﬁnally be defeated so the people of God might be vindicated. This will culminate in a divine theophany where the nations will be “sublimated” (seemingly destroyed, but actually transformed). Yet among the sublimated nations are people who, acknowledging God, will become part of God’s new creation by covenantal restitution of the nations. McNicol tends to argue for a “plain,” “ordinary,” or “standard” reading of the text, which suggests that other readings are obtuse or abnormal and assumes unity in Revelation, which causes him to ignore some recognized Revelation scholars like Tina Pippen. However, this work suggests a needed potential solution to an area of tension in Revelation studies, and provides a helpful introduction to the use of the Hebrew Bible in Revelation, instructional for scholars and students alike. Beth M. Stovell St. Thomas University, Florida Literature 147. New York: Peter Lang, 2012. Pp. xiv + 249. Cloth, $80.95. Applying the insights of postcolonial theories (especially hybridity, mimicry, mockery, and alterity), this revised dissertation argues that Acts contends against two “centers of power”: the Roman Empire and institutional instantiations of ancient Judaism. The narrative of Herod Agrippa’s gruesome demise in 12:20-23 provides a heuristic example of the ways Acts draws upon “subversion, alterity, and ﬁnal reversal.” In short, those who hold pretensions of divine power stand in opposition to God. Such claims to divine prerogatives are marks of corrupt, imperial power. Analysis of the Roman imperial cult’s divination of emperors, both during and after their lifetimes, and exegesis of texts in Acts that deal with the representatives of Rome and Judaism further advance the author’s thesis. Acts is an ideal terrain for a postcolonial analysis of power, empire, and the many ways the subaltern grapples with both. The book’s primary arguments about the posture of Acts and many of its exegetical observations move in the right direction. While this volume introduces much-needed methodological tools for the study of Acts, their full application to the whole scope of Acts and its constituent passages still remains a scholarly desideratum. Muñoz-Larrondo provides a helpful start to this endeavor. Eric D. Barreto Luther Seminary ANNIHILATION OR RENEWAL?: THE MEANING AND FUNCTION OF NEW CREATION IN THE BOOK OF REVELATION. By Mark B. Stephens. WUNT II/307. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011. Pp. v + 343. Paper, €79.00. Stephens explores the meaning and function of “new creation” within the book of Revelation, a process accomplished by posing the question whether its author envisions an “eschatological annihilation” and subsequent replacement of the cosmos, or an “eschatological renewal” of the present cosmos. In other words, is there a material continuity or discontinuity between the present and future cosmos? Stevens introduces a backdrop for understanding the concept of “new creation” by analyzing references found in Hebrew Bible, Second Temple Apocalyptic, and two early Christian texts, viz., Romans 8:18-22 and 2 Peter 3:5-13. After exploring the literary context, he considers the social setting, rhetorical strategy, and literary structure of Revelation itself. What emerges is a complex, intricately ambiguous, eschatological picture in which “the imagery and auditions of Revelation work together to communicate both judgment upon the present order of creation and yet at the same time the eschatological renewal of all things.” Stevens demonstrates that annihilation is the end result for the evil forces, allowing the cosmos itself to be restored to God’s presence. This is, indeed, a notable contribution to NT scholarship, and provides a new perspective on a complex and much debated issue. It certainly should be considered by any serious scholar of Revelation and should be included in every graduate school library. Rebecca Skaggs Patten University PAUL: LIFE, SETTING, WORK, LETTERS. Edited by Oda Wischmeyer. Translated by Helen S. Heron. London: T&T Clark, 2012. Pp. viii + 372. Cloth, $130.00; paper, $39.95. This book, divided into three parts, provides a thorough introduction to Paul’s life and work. Part 1 locates Paul in relation to various aspects of his cultural context (e.g., political, religious, philosophical), and introduces readers to the apostle’s life and missionary activity. Part 2 is the backbone of the book, with chapters analyzing the context, structure, content, audience, and impact of 1 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, Philemon, and Romans. It concludes with a chapter on Pauline theology that aims to describe the nature of Paul’s theological thinking and introduces a variety of major theological themes (e.g., christology, anthropology, soteriology) that appear in the Pauline corpus. Recognizing that Paul’s writings have had substantial impact on the history of Christianity, Part 3 considers the reception of Paul’s letters. The earliest centuries ﬁgure most signiﬁcantly in this part, with one chapter devoted to the ﬁrst century and another to the second. The rest of church history is then considered in the ﬁnal chapter of the book. Charts and tables throughout give this volume a textbook feel. It is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, 38 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 39 and will be most useful in courses on the life and letters of Paul. As an English translation of the German original, another key beneﬁt is that it makes available the perspectives of a number of German scholars to non-German speaking students. Matthew P. O’Reilly University of Gloucestershire • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2013 sophical approach, reading this commentary will prove difﬁcult to those not familiar with the major philosophical voices engaged in the text. Jason A. Myers Asbury Theological Seminary PAUL AND THE MISSION OF THE CHURCH: PHILIPPIANS IN ANCIENT JEWISH CONTEXT. By NOT MY PEOPLE: GENTILES AS EXILES IN PAULINE HERMENEUTICS. By David I. Starling. BZNW James P. Ware. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2011. Pp. xv + 380. Paper, $60.00. This book is an unchanged paperback reprint of Ware’s 2005 volume, The Mission of the Church in Paul’s Letter to the Philippians in the Context of Ancient Judaism (NovTSup 120; Leiden: Brill). Ware’s aim is to provide a fresh analysis of “Paul’s understanding of the role of his churches in the spread of the gospel.” The study is divided into two parts, the ﬁrst of which investigates Jewish attitudes toward gentile proselytism. A strength of the book is the way it deals with questions raised by the well-known phenomenon of Gentile conversion even though there is little evidence of Jewish mission consciousness. Ware argues that gentile proselytism was not energized by a sense of mission but by the scriptural vision of the eschatological gathering of the nations to Zion. The second part locates Paul’s own mission consciousness, especially in Philippians, within this Jewish context. He argues for Paul’s belief that the reign of God began with coming of Jesus; thus, Paul understands his mission as a part of the eschatological ingathering of the nations. Ware further argues that Paul saw his apostolic commission as being fulﬁlled not merely in the preaching of the gospel but in the planting of churches in strategic cities so they might independently carry on the mission. Given that Philippians has not ﬁgured prominently in studies of Paul’s and mission, Ware’s study is a welcome contribution to the ﬁeld and will be of interest not only to Pauline scholars but also to present-day missionaries and missiologists. Matthew P. O’Reilly University of Gloucestershire 184. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter, 2011. Pp. xi + 254. Cloth, €99.95/$140.00. This book investigates the possibility of Gentiles as exiles in Paul’s thought. Starling examines Paul’s use of the Hebrew Bible in texts such as Gal 4:27, 2 Cor 6:1-18, Rom 9:25-26, and Eph 2:17. Broad themes include the nature of Gentiles in Pauline theology and Paul’s use of the Hebrew Bible. Starling encourages the reader to envision the scriptural texts quoted by Paul as part of a larger salvation historical program whereby Gentiles are part of Israel’s story through the incorporation into Christ and the giving of the Spirit. Paul’s use of the theme of Gentiles as exiles is not univocal but functions differently in each text. One of Starling’s key observations is that the sharp distinction of “Paul and the Law” is part of the tension of the call of Israel to be a blessing to the world—the singular call contrasted with the universal promises. This book is intended for a high level of research and does not cover general discussion of various topics but offers critical analysis of several key Pauline issues. Startling offers an interesting proposal that is sure to invigorate various discussions of Pauline theology. Jason A. Myers Asbury Theological Seminary THE LETTER TO THE ROMANS: SALVATION AS JUSTICE AND THE DECONSTRUCTION OF LAW. By Herman C. Waetjen. Shefﬁeld, UK: Shefﬁeld Phoenix Press, 2011. Pp. xxiv + 390. Cloth, $115/€85. There seems to be no end to the number of Roman commentaries being published recently. Waetjen’s contribution, however, is unique among the various choices, not so much for its ﬁndings as for its approach to the text. The commentary combines a historical-critical, social-scientiﬁc, and a speciﬁcally postmodern hermeneutic in its reading of Romans. Following the recent trend to read Paul alongside modern continental philosophers, Waetjen brings Romans into conversation with contemporary political philosophers, such as Derrida, Žižek, Badiou, and Agamben. Doing so causes Waetjen to pay attention to readers’ subjective experiences in engaging the text. This attempt to read Paul “through” the eyes of modern philosophy certainly brings about new insights into this text itself. More controversial is Waetjen’s arguments for an early dating of Romans, especially as the ﬁrst of Paul’s extant letters. Given its philo- CHRIST THE IDEAL KING: CULTURAL CONTEXT, RHETORICAL STRATEGY, AND THE POWER OF DIVINE MONARCHY IN EPHESIANS. By Julien Smith. WUNT II/313. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011. Pp. v + 316. Paper, €79.00. Smith contends that, in Greco-Roman and Jewish antiquity, “[t]he ideal king was commonly thought of as imitating divine virtue, and thus providing the example for his subjects to follow.” At the same time, he maintains that in Ephesians, Jesus the Christ is purposefully portrayed as an “ideal king.” Throughout, many of Smith’s arguments are compelling. His broad survey of ancient literature and attentiveness to christological issues will be appreciated by all readers. This work will also likely raise a number of questions. For example, Smith’s notion that Jesus is a vice-regent 39 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 39 • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2013 opinion the former is better suited to the study of biblical texts. The critique of Kristeva, however, is really a critique of biblical scholars who adopt her methodology rather than Kristeva’s methodology itself. Philip takes a thematic rather than an exegetical approach to the Tabernacle by comparing some of the similarities and dissimilarities of Leviticus and Hebrews on the topic. The choice of themes in both biblical books is somewhat selective, and the treatment of those themes is often brief. A collection of appendices completes the book, but it is not clear to the reader how several of them function—for example, the ﬁrst appendix on selected OT themes in Barnabas, or the third appendix on selected theological and sociological terminology. Alan C. Mitchell Georgetown University who ﬁlls in for God-at-a-distance makes sense, yet it also causes one to ask: Why did God need a vice-regent at all? Why did God not enact the transformation from vice to virtue in humans himself? Also, one wonders if Smith’s “paraphrastic summary” in chapter 5, which for dramatic effect replaces all uses of Christos in Ephesians with “king,” is at all legitimate or even helpful. Excepting about a half-dozen typos, this book is well written and worth the read. I highly recommend this provocative volume to students, scholars, and libraries alike. T. Michael W. Halcomb Asbury Theological Seminary HEBREWS: CHIASTIC STRUCTURE AND AUDIENCE RESPONSE. By John Paul Heil. The Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series, 46. Washington, DC: The Catholic Biblical Association of America, 2010. Pp. xiv + 475. Paper, $25.00. Tackling the structure of Hebrews is a daunting task, and John Paul Heil does it boldly by proposing an entire chiastic structure for the sermon. He holds himself to a high standard, setting nine rigorous criteria to which the macroand micro-chiasms must conform if the perceived chiasms are to be anything more than a subjective arrangement of the text. He offers three macrochiastic structures. The ﬁrst is made up of three large units: 1) Heb 1:1-5:10; 2) Heb 5:119:28; and 3) Heb 10:1-13:25. This tripartite division is then subdivided into two subsequent macrochiastic structures, a second division of eleven subsections for each of the three divisions of the ﬁrst macrochiastic structures, and a third division where each of the eleven divisions of the second structure are divided into three subdivisions. Most of the subdivisions are based on linguistic usage where the repetition of particular words determines the arrangement. One has to admire Heil’s efforts to delineate yet again the structure of Hebrews. Not all commentators will agree with his broad divisions of the sermon, as well as with some of his smaller units. Given the variety of arrangements for Hebrews that have been proposed in the past, it is likely that one cannot completely eliminate the subjective element in discovering chiasms. Alan C. Mitchell Georgetown University THE USE OF EXODUS IN HEBREWS. By King L. She. Studies in Biblical Literature 142. New York: Peter Lang, 2011. Pp. xix + 214. Cloth, $75.95. This published dissertation (Dallas Theological Seminary) is a rather peculiar work for several reasons. First, the English style is difﬁcult and obscures the author’s arguments. Second, She’s method is challenging to discern. He prefers a “prescriptive” method over a “descriptive” one. The former is an “ontological” method that is free of subjective bias and is capable of uncovering the metaphysical reality of the text itself, thus rendering its true interpretation. “Descriptive” method approaches the text with preconceived notions that determine the interpretation of the text. It results in theological diversity, which She calls “a crisis of faith.” She takes the practitioners of “descriptive” methodology to task, but oddly concludes that even a “prescriptive” method cannot be practiced without ﬁrst engaging in a “descriptive” approach. And so he follows both methods in order to overcome “the state of indeterminacy created by descriptive analysis.” She’s argument about Hebrews’ use of Exodus is tendentious. Presupposing that the audience of Hebrews is Jewish, he ﬁts his interpretation of the sermon to that assumption without making the case for it from exegesis of Hebrews itself. He also overvalues Exodus texts like 3:14 and 31:18-34:35 in Hebrews, giving them a greater role than the author of Hebrews does. Shortcomings such as these render his project unconvincing. Alan C. Mitchell Georgetown University LEVITICUS IN HEBREWS: A TRANSTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF THE TABERNACLE THEME IN THE LETTER TO THE HEBREWS. By Mayjee Philip. New York: Peter Lang, 2011. Pp. viii + 182. Cloth, €73.60/$89.95. This short book is an extension of the author’s doctoral dissertation (Concordia University, Montréal). It attempts to bridge the gap between the thematic unity and the contextual diversity of Leviticus and Hebrews on the topic of the Tabernacle by using a transtextual approach. Philip prefers the transtextual approach of Gérard Genette to the intertextual approach of Julia Kristeva because in her ALLEGORY TRANSFORMED: THE APPROPRIATION OF PHILONIC HERMENEUTICS IN THE LETTER TO THE HEBREWS. By Stefan N. Svendsen. WUNT II/269. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2009. Pp. xv + 273. Paper, €59.00. This “revised and slightly altered” dissertation (University of Copenhagen; Henrik Tronier and Troels 40 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 39 • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2013 This book contains papers presented as part of a research program organized by the universities in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, with three meetings in 2010. The ﬁrst part, “Infancy Gospels and Stories,” has articles by F. Prescendi, C. Grappe, S Mimouni, E. Norelli, C. Guignard, A. Destro and M. Pesce, J. Costa, J. Verheyden, and C. Clivas. The second part, “Stories and Identities in the Infancy Gospels,” has articles by J. Frey, D. Pastorelli, A. Taschl-Erber, M. Mayordomo, E. Cuvillier, A. Runesson, S. Butticaz, L. Devillers, D. Gerber, and B. Viviano. The third part, “Infancy Gospels Stories and Identities,” has articles by S. Voicu, L. Vuong, F. Amsler, U. Kaiser, G. van Oyen, J.-D. Kaestli, V. Calzolari, P. Alexander, D. Barbu, and F. Rosset. The concluding part of the book has a bibliography and indices. The scholars involved in this project promote the use of the term “infancy gospels” to designate the entire corpus of stories relating to Jesus’s birth and childhood. The book also includes an article by P. Alexander on the “Jewish Anti-Gospel” (the Toledot Yeshu). Birger A. Pearson University of California, Santa Barbara Engberg-Pedersen) argues for the inﬂuence of Philo, or “at least the tradition of which he was a part,” on the author of Hebrews. Unlike previous studies of the Philonic inﬂuence on Hebrews, which restrict themselves to Philo’s language, cosmology, and theology, Svendsen’s work posits that the inﬂuence extended to hermeneutics, speciﬁcally scriptural exegesis. He moves beyond a vertical/horizontal dichotomy that would distinguish Philo’s thought from that of Hebrews by claiming that Hebrews actually show an interest in both Platonic metaphysics and Jewish-Christian eschatology. The book’s particular contribution lies in the examination of how the author of Hebrews appropriated Philo’s allegorical method and employed some of Philo’s own exegetical results. Especially valuable is Svendsen’s survey of allegory among the Stoics, Pseudo-Aristeas, and Aristobulus, and the commentary on Hebrews that comprises the book’s last three chapters. Svendsen has made an interesting and valuable contribution to the study of Hebrews that enhances the ongoing discussion of the sermon’s Platonism and possible Philonic inﬂuence on its composition. Alan C. Mitchell Georgetown University ABUSE, POWER AND FEARFUL OBEDIENCE: RECONSIDERING 1 PETER’S COMMANDS TO WIVES. By Jennifer G. Bird. Library of New Testament DER SAME SETHS: HANS-MARTIN SCHENKES KLEINE SCHRIFTEN ZU GNOSIS, KOPTOLOGIE UND NEUEM TESTAMENT. Edited by Gesine Schenke Studies 442. New York: T&T Clark, 2011. Pp. xix + 214. Cloth, $75.95. This published dissertation (Vanderbilt, Fernando Segovia) offers a feminist, postcolonial, and materialist interpretation of 1 Pet 3:1-6 that focuses on the “dominant kyriarchical ethos” of the letter that is especially represented in this text. Bird’s new approach is eclectic, and although she claims to have developed a new methodology out of three previously employed methods, she has actually applied aspects of feminist, postcolonial, and materialist interpretation to 1 Pet. The overall conclusion is that 1 Pet 3:1-6 constructs a view of women that colludes with the letter’s wider interest in supporting an “imperial” worldview, captured emblematically in 1 Pet 2:17, “Honor the Emperor.” In Bird’s opinion, contemporary women will be liberated from the oppressive effects of 1 Pet 3:1-6 only if this text is emancipated from its canonical heritage. As noble as that goal is, this book would be more effective if it had offered a more rigorous exegesis of the text itself and a greater willingness to dialogue with previous scholarship on it, rather than a dismissal of that scholarship as “white malestream” and “essentialist.” Alan C. Mitchell Georgetown University Robinson, Gesa Schenke, and Uwe-Karsten Plisch. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 78. Leiden: Brill, 2012. Pp. xxxv + 1434. €289.00/$396.00. This book contains essays and reviews published by Hans-Martin Schenke (1929-2002), one of the greatest historians of religions of the twentieth century. Born in Berlin, he was educated at the Humboldt University in (East) Berlin in NT and Egyptology, and remained there as a professor all his life (Emeritus 1994). When the Nag Hammadi Codices became available for study, Schenke founded the Berliner Arbeitskreis für Koptisch-Gnostische Schriften. He and his doctoral students published numerous important editions and monographs that are standard to this day. The work of the Arbeitskreis culminated in 2003 with the publication of the German translation of the Nag Hammadi and Berlin Codices, Nag Hammadi Deutsch (2 vols.). Published here are 56 of Schenke’s essays from 1958 to 2004, and 76 reviews from 1954 to 2003, presented in chronological order. The essays fall into three categories: “New Testament and Ancient Church,” “Gnosis and Nag Hammadi,” and “Egyptology and Coptology.” Of the groundbreaking essays in this book, I would single out for special mention four in the second category: “Das Problem der Beziehung zwischen Judentum und Gnosis: Ist die Gnosis aus dem Judentum ableitbar” (1965), “Das sethianische System nach Nag Hammadi-Handschriften” (1974), “The Phenomenon and Signiﬁcance of Gnostic Sethianism” (1981), and “On the Compositional History of the Gospel of Thomas” INFANCY GOSPELS: STORIES AND IDENTITIES. Edited by Claire Clivaz, Andreas Dettwiler, Luc Devillers, and Enrico Norelli, with the assistance of Benjamin Bertho. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011. Pp. xxxiii + 755. €149.00. 41 Religious Studies Review • VOLUME 39 (1998). The essays on Sethianism speak to the title of this book, “the Seed of Seth.” Birger A. Pearson University of California, Santa Barbara • NUMBER 1 • MARCH 2013 central to their understanding of the reality of the Trinity and of God’s activity in creation, in the incarnation, and in salvation. Tollefsen works in dialogue with a wide range of scholars. He presents a compelling critique of J. Meyendorff’s “real distinction” and J. D. Zizioulas’s claim that Greek Christian thinkers begin with the notion of person rather than essence. He again engages D. Balás and turns to D. Bradshaw to expand on a major difference he has identiﬁed between Eastern and Western theological perspectives. Anyone interested in learning how the concepts of participation and divine activity came to be conceived and expressed in Greek Christian thought and the modern debate on this topic would do well to consult this book. Mónica Mata University of Notre Dame History of Christianity (Early) GATEWAY TO HEAVEN: MARIAN DOCTRINE AND DEVOTION, IMAGE AND TYPOLOGY IN THE PATRISTIC AND MEDIEVAL PERIODS. VOLUME 1: DOCTRINE AND DEVOTION. By Brian K. Reynolds. Hyde Park, NY: New City Press, 2012. Pp. 415. Paper, $39.95. This book on Mariology will be indispensable for those seeking a middle ground between overly broad and overly specialized studies of Marian thought and practice. The ﬁrst in a projected two-volume set (the second to continue with “image and typology”), this book shows the contours of patristic and medieval Mariological development through extensive primary source quotation. Almost every page contains block quotes, often of works unavailable in English. Reynolds provides light running commentary on these passages, but his primary goal is to let these compiled sources speak for themselves. The contention behind this strategy seems to be that there were, and are, real theological concerns in Marian questions that cannot be reduced to social or cultural factors. The book is, thus, useful as a complement to recent scholarship on Marian devotion as a phenomenon of social history. The key questions here are doctrinal: the meaning of Mary’s virgin motherhood or her role as co-redemptrix, the stakes of the assumption or Immaculate Conception. The book is neither concise nor encyclopedic, but it is the perfect place to start if, for example, one wants a concrete idea of what twelfth-century theologians were saying about the assumption. Samuel Keyes Boston College PALLADIUS OF HELENOPOLIS: THE ORIGENIST ADVOCATE. By Demetrios S. Katos. Oxford Early Christian Studies. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Pp. xvii + 288. Hardback, $135.00. This is the ﬁrst monograph devoted to the life, work, and thought of the Christian bishop and author, Palladius of Helenopolis (c. 363-430). Palladius is a key source of information for early Christian asceticism, spirituality, and pilgrimage, and for the lives of John Chrysostom, Theophilus of Alexandria, and Evagrius of Pontus. Katos offers a new reading of Palladius’s widely inﬂuential Dialogue on the Life of St. John Chrysostom and Lausiac History by incorporating recent scholarship on late antique rhetoric and the Origenist tradition. In the past two decades, scholarly interest in Palladius and his writings has grown, especially after the critical editions of his History and Dialogue, works that heavily inﬂuenced subsequent Christian historiography and ascetical literature. This study shows that Palladius was inﬂuenced by his connection to other Origenist ascetics, and that he devoted his rhetorical skills to the promotion of the Origenist theology. Katos’s study is multifaceted and is devoted to various thematics: life, oeuvre, skills, ascetic practices, theology of Palladius, defense of John Chrysostom are linked organically. The introduction of rhetoric theory by Katos for studying the Dialogue proves very helpful, but on the other hand increases the degree of difﬁculty of Chapters 2 and 3. The rest of his study is devoted to Historia Lausiaca and Palladius’s theology and asceticism. Every serious scholar and every seminary library should own a copy. Spyros P. Panagopoulos University of Patras ACTIVITY AND PARTICIPATION IN LATE ANTIQUE AND EARLY CHRISTIAN THOUGHT. By Torstein Theodor Tollefsen. Oxford Early Christian Studies Series. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Pp. x + 229. $125.00. Beginning with J. Meyendorff, modern Orthodox conceptions of the doctrine of deiﬁcation presuppose a distinction between God’s essence and energy. Tollefsen evaluates the extent to which this distinction is valid by investigating the precise character of the realities denoted by divine essence, “energy,” deiﬁcation, and participation according to the thought of Gregory of Nyssa, Dionysius the Areopagite, Maximus the Confessor, and Gregory of Palamas. Through a diachronic investigation of the development of these concepts, he works to show that while there are differences between each thinker’s precise notions of divine activity and participation, they all carry forward a basic doctrine that is APOPHASIS AND PSEUDONYMITY IN DIONYSIUS THE AREOPAGITE: “NO LONGER I”. By Charles M. Stang. Oxford Early Christian Studies. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Pp. vi + 236. Hardback, $110.00. Stang examines the treatises of a sixth-century mystical theologian who wrote under the name of a disciple of the apostle Paul, Dionysius the Areopagite. 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