مرکزی صفحہ Gastroenterology Glenn M. Ihde, 125 pp. $20.00 ,Considering Weight-Loss Surgery: The Facts to Know for a Healthy...
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462 PRINT AND MEDIA REVIEWS Digestive Endoscopy in the Second Millennium: From the Lichtleiter to Echoendoscopy. Francisco Vilardell. 331 pp. $149.95. New York, Thieme, 2005. ISBN 1-5889-0420-2. Web address for ordering: www.thieme.com Professor Vilardell, a noted gastroenterologist and past president of the World Organization of Gastroenterology, has written a monograph on the history of digestive endoscopy. The trials and challenges encountered by historical physicians in the name of progress are embodied in this book covering 14 chapters written by the author documenting the incredible evolution that has become gastrointestinal endoscopy today. The aim of this text is what sets it apart from other existing books covering the subject of gastrointestinal endoscopy; this is not another endoscopy textbook describing the various techniques used in endoscopic procedures. Rather, this text is a richly described history of how the art of endoscopy began, developed, and who the scientists, clinicians, and originators were who led this field in the past century. The antiquity of the pre-endoscopy era is well described, including devices used for food impactions, overdoses, and diagnostic and therapeutic enemas. Page after page of pictorials and figures depicting fascinating bygone diagnostic and therapeutic equipment are recognized and referenced, giving credit to the tremendous research time spent in this collection. Topics are taken from historical to present day, one subject at a time. The first attempt at upper endoscopy is well described in this text as in other texts of the same subject. The description and figures regarding the Lichtleiter (light conductor) using a candle as a light source is very satisfying to the reader. Further novel devices are well described, as well as inspiration for new techniques including sword swallowers stimulating early ideas for rigid gastroscopy. Eventually, the development of fiber optics and, thereby fibergastroscopy, led to the first publication of contemporary endoscopy; in Gastroenterology in 1958 from the group at the University of Michigan. For current or recently trained gastroenterologists, the concept of experienced providers failing to complete a colonoscopy to the cecum with relative ease is foreign. The difficulty faced by many pioneers in the field of colonoscopy is depicted with phenomenal descriptions of slow but steady progress. One description includes a pulley traction and double intubation system to achieve total colonoscopy. The ability to use images displayed on easyto-view television screens or performs biopsies or simple polypectomies are common place today, but all involved an evolution by pioneers in the field of colonoscopy, which is documented and detailed in this text. Some tools used in the past were surpassed by other technology or are no longer used by today’s gastroenterologist and are discussed. The gastrocamera was used extensively in Japan and other locations until fiber optic gastroscopy improved and became superior. Laparoscopy GASTROENTEROLOGY Vol. 132, No. 1 was an important diagnostic tool used by digestive disease physicians before being passed to surgeons. Conversely, diagnostic and therapeutic intervention of the common bile duct has historically been surgical; now, gastroenterologists have a primary role. The history of each is reviewed with fascinating detail and as it is throughout the book with multiple black-and-white and color photos and illustrations not previously published. Finally, the evolution of gastrointestinal endoscopy would not be complete without a framework for it to flourish. The different societies that govern and lead gastroenterology have had their own process of evolution, including the American Gastroenterological Association, which is the first, recorded in 1897. A chapter is devoted to this important component as endoscopy societies developed in United States, Asia, and Europe. One of the greatest strengths of this book is that it is not just a story of devices and techniques, but it is a history and thus Dr Vilardell emphasizes the men and women who made this history. The author also puts the history in perspective to contemporaries of the different times, explaining the multifactorial and complex development of the field. To sort through this history and of tremendous assistance to the reader are the multiple indexes by name, subject, hospital, device, and device maker. Bottom Line: This is the first textbook dedicated to the history of gastrointestinal endoscopy. The depiction of endoscopic journals, instruments, techniques, and outstanding clinicians advancing this science comes to life in this magnificent monologue. A book equally suitable for those who practice gastrointestinal endoscopy and those who study and enjoy the history of medicine. JUSTIN RICE PATRICK R. PFAU Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Madison, Wisconsin Considering Weight-Loss Surgery: The Facts to Know for a Healthy Recovery. Glenn M. Ihde. 125 pp. $20.00. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, Trafford Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-4120-3171-0. Web address for ordering: www.trafford.com It is well known that we are in the midst of an obesity pandemic with ⬎65% of Americans being either overweight or obese. Bariatric surgery has proven itself to be very successful in the obese patient, but it is not without risk. So would a book that targets patients contemplating the weight loss surgery experience be useful to our patients? You bet your Double Stuff Oreos it would! January 2007 This book is meant to be an easy-to-read manual that will assist the patient on their lifelong journey for controlling their obesity. The author, Dr Ihde, is a Bariatric surgeon who has created this book as an outgrowth of the need for patient care materials for the surgical patient. The book ultimately addresses a wide variety of common questions that patients may have. Overall, I believe that he fulfills his mission to educate his potential bariatric patients. You know that you have entered the “surgical zone” when you pass the Table of Contents and receive “The Ten Commandments of Weight-Loss Surgery.” These rules are the basis of the book’s outline and highlight what the patient needs to know and what to expect if a surgical option for weight loss is chosen. The information is presented at a level appropriate for a non-medical audience. It defines obesity and the reasons why physicians believe that it must be controlled— ultimately longevity and significant comorbidities that decrease the quality of life and increase medical costs. Although this book is a primer for the surgical patient, it does review the nonsurgical options that are presently available. The cornerstone of obesity treatment continues to be diet and exercise. Some patients are able to lose weight through these methods alone, but the heavier an individual is, the less likely these methods will be successful for the long-term. What most overweight and obese people do not understand is that a “weight reduction diet” must be adhered to as a lifelong change and that a commitment to exercise is an excellent predictor of keeping the weight off. The use of prescription medications is also discussed. Admittedly, the drug options are few, and the successes are often not dramatic. However, I disagree that a weight loss of 25 pounds has little benefit. For some patients, this may represent a 10% reduction in their weight, which is associated with improvements in blood pressure and lipids, as well as reduction in joint pain. Would more weight loss potentially provide even more benefit? Of course. Unfortunately, there are not many physicians who are involved in medically supervised weight loss with the currently available medications. It is also very costly for the patient; many insurance plans do not cover medical obesity treatment or the expensive medications, or PRINT AND MEDIA REVIEWS 463 even the expertise of a registered dietitian to work with these patients. The book reviews the current surgical options, but could have done a better job of this with pictures in this section. However, the author’s bias is to perform the roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This is generally a very effective procedure and most of the remainder of the book relates to this experience, including the preoperative assessment, operation, and hospital stay, and the various postoperative stages. There is a very good discussion of the risks associated with surgery. This is important because many patients wish to ignore that there can be life-threatening and other risks when surgery is performed. The remainder of the book is fairly specific to the RYGB experience. This includes many lists and forms that could be helpful to the postoperative patient. Bottom Line: This is a potentially useful resource for patients who are considering bariatric surgery. There are several criticisms. The book would have been more useful if it offered the same postoperative information for all of the major surgeries currently being performed. Another drawback to this book is the retail price of $20. This seems an exceedingly bloated price for a paperback book, but in surfing the Internet, I discovered over 15 other similarly priced books on this subject, including books written by patients who have had the surgery as well as books by other surgeons. Also, the other books can be had at discounted prices, but I have not reviewed each of them. How will potential patients find out about this book? It is unlikely to make the New York Times Best Seller List, and the best source of referrals may be bariatric programs that, like the book’s author, may require its reading before surgery is performed. For developing bariatric programs, this book could provide the necessary patient literature to help educate the potential patient as to what to expect. So, although the potential market for this book is “big,” it will be limited by its scope, availability, and cost. DONALD F. KIRBY Section of Nutrition Virginia Commonwealth University Richmond, Virginia